Effects of Gyroscope on Arm Swing and Gait in Healthy VolunteersRead the full article
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics publishes original research articles as well as review articles that seek to understand the mechanics of biological systems, or that use the functions of living organisms as inspiration for the design of new devices.
Chief Editor, Professor Qiguo Rong, is the Vice Chair of the Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science at Peking University, China. His research focuses on the biomechanical behaviors of musculoskeletal systems.
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Effect of V-Shaped Groove Microstructure on Blood Flow Resistance in Bionic Artificial Blood Vessels
This study aims to investigate the blood flow in bionic artificial blood vessels and to reduce the resistance to blood flow, the drag reduction characteristics of V-shaped groove drag reduction microstructures in artificial blood vessel structures were investigated in depth. By varying the parameters of incoming flow velocity, groove width, and groove depth, the effect of various variable conditions on the drag reduction effect of the grooves was investigated, and the flow field characteristics and drag reduction effect of the V-shaped groove microstructure in the artificial blood vessel were obtained. A detailed analysis of the effect of velocity and groove size on the drag reduction effect of the groove was also carried out to demonstrate the drag reduction mechanism of the V-shaped groove microstructure and to summarize the variation law of the drag reduction rate of the V-shaped groove. The results show that the resistance reduction rate of the V-shaped groove microstructure decreases with the increase of blood flow velocity, increases with the increase of groove width, and increases and then decreases with the increase of groove depth. The velocity range used in this paper is 0.3–0.6 m/s, the groove width varies from 0 to 0.3 mm, and the groove depth varies from 0 to 0.3 mm.
Design and Analysis of a Hemispherical Parallel Mechanism for Forearm–Wrist Rehabilitation
This paper presents a bionic cable-driven mechanism to simulate the motion of human wrist which is suitable for human forearm–wrist rehabilitation. It fulfills workspace of the human forearm–wrist and it can train the joint in active and passive. With three degrees of freedom, it completes the supination/pronation of the forearm, the radial/ulnar deviation, and flexion/extension of the wrist. In addition to the movement of single degree of freedom of the forearm–wrist, it can also complete circumduction of the wrist. The mechanism consists of revolving platform, parallel mechanism, supporting mechanism, and movable table. Especially, in the parallel mechanism, a spring is added between the fixed and moving platform, and the moving platform is designed in the shape of a hemispherical shell. Utilizing the resilient properties of the extension spring and the support of the hemispherical shell, the problem of slack in the cable is solved in this mechanism. Since the spring is a passive component and cannot be calculated directly, a method combining kinematics and statics is proposed to calculate the relationship between the pose of the moving platform and the cable. Meanwhile, the kinematics, statics, and workspace solution of the mechanism are derived. Then, the simulation results demonstrate the accurateness and feasibility of the inverse kinematics and workspace derivation of the mechanism. Finally, the experiments are analyzed to verify the mechanism suitable for forearm–wrist rehabilitation tasks.
Effect of Load Carriage Lifestyle on Kinematics and Kinetics of Gait
Backpacks are commonly worn by many people for multiple purposes. This study investigated the effects of habitual wearing of backpacks on lower limb kinematics and kinetics. Fourteen participants were recruited for analysis. All participants performed four randomly assigned scenarios, including running and walking at speeds of 3.5 and 1.5 m/s, respectively, with and without load carriage. The motion analysis system and force plate were used to investigate the lower limb kinematics and kinetics. A paired sample t-test was performed for statistical measurement with a significance level of α = .05. The results indicated that active force, breaking force, impact peak, loading rate, active peak, maximum braking, hip flexion, and hip range of motion were substantially higher under load carriage conditions than under walking condition, however, time to peak was lower. Conversely, during load carriage running, active force, braking impulse, time to peak, ankle plantarflexion, and ankle range of motion were all higher than those during running. Carrying a backpack weighing 10% of the body weight induced different foot strike patterns at both speeds; during load carriage walking, the hip tended to flex more; whereas, during load carriage running, the ankle tended to flex more. In conclusion, human body seems to adopt different gait strategies during load carriage walking and running. That is, the hip strategy is used during walking, while the ankle strategy is used during running.
Non-Newtonian Effects of Blood Flow on Hemodynamics in Pulmonary Stenosis: Numerical Simulation
This paper aims to explore the construction of an individualized pulmonary artery stenosis model based on computed tomography (CT) images. The stenosis model is simulated using a porous medium, and the numerical simulation is carried out by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method to discuss non-Newtonian effects on hemodynamics. The hemodynamic parameters and quantitative pulmonary pressure ratio (QPPR) of the right pulmonary artery stenosis are obtained. The change curves of hemodynamic parameters show that the effects of non-Newtonian fluid are more significant than those of Newtonian fluid. Under the non-Newtonian condition, pressure and velocity drop more and faster when blood flow enters into the stenosis region. There is a high wall shear stress in the stenosis downstream. The margin of error between the QPPR value of the non-Newtonian fluid simulation and the clinical measurement value is not more than 10%. This work provides the evidence that the simulation of non-Newtonian fluid is closer to the reality when a porous medium model is used in a stenosis model. This contributes to assessing the severity of pulmonary stenosis behavior and is essential to guide disease treatment.
The Outcome and Safety in Laparoscopic Common Bile Duct Exploration with Primary Suture versus T-Tube Drainage: A Meta-Analysis
Background. Sometimes, after choledochotomy, the common bile duct is closed with T-tube drainage for several weeks to prevent postoperative complications such as biliary fistula and stricture. But there has been controversy over the advantages of primary suture versus T-tube drainage. The purpose of our meta-analysis in laparoscopic common bile duct exploration is to appraise the efficacy and safety of T-tube drainage and primary suture. Methods. The literatures were searched by Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Library, OVID, and EMBASE between the year January 1, 2001 and February 28, 2021. Meta-analysis was performed by Stata 12. Results. Fourteen studies with 1,549 patients (827 vs. 722) were included in our study. The primary suture group had significant lesser operative time (), postoperative hospital stay (), hospital expenses (), intraoperative bleeding (), and postoperative complications () than the T-tube drainage group. In postoperative bleeding (), bile leakage (), and bile duct stricture (), there was no statistical difference. In the primary suture group, using single-arm synthesis, the bile leakage rate and the bile duct stricture rate were 0.07 vs. 0.04 and 0.00 vs. 0.00 in interrupted suture and continuous suture groups. The bile duct stricture rate was same in both groups, and the bile leakage rate was lower in the interrupted suture group. But the difference was not significant. Conclusion. The primary suture group had several advantages, including lesser operative time, postoperative complications, intraoperative bleeding, postoperative hospital stay, and hospital expenses. In bile leakage and bile duct stricture, the difference between the two groups was not significant. In the primary suture group, interrupted suture and continuous suture groups had similar bile leakage rate and bile duct stricture rate.
Design and Motion Simulation of a Soft Robot for Crawling in Pipes
In recent years, soft pipeline robot, as a new concept, is proposed to adapt to tunnel. The soft pipeline robots are made of soft materials such as rubber or silicone. These materials have good elasticity, which enhance the adaptability of the soft pipeline robot. Therefore, the soft pipeline robot has better performance on deformability than rigid robot. However, the structure of tunnel is complex and varied that brought challenges on design structure of soft pipeline robot. In this paper, we propose soft pipeline robot with simple structure and easy fabrication, which can be realized straight, turning motion in a variety of tunnels with different diameters. The soft pipeline robot composed of two types of structure, which are expansion part and deformation part. Front and rear deformation part for bending and position fixation, and middle expansion part for elongation, so the pipeline soft robot can be moved in various structures of tunnels. Moreover, the locomotion ability and adaptability in tunnel are verified by simulating on software. The structure of chamber proposed in this paper can guide the design method of soft pipeline robot.