A Systematic Review of Real-Time Medical Simulations with Soft-Tissue Deformation: Computational Approaches, Interaction Devices, System Architectures, and Clinical ValidationsRead the full article
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics publishes original research articles as well as review articles that seek to understand the mechanics of biological systems, or that use the functions of living organisms as inspiration for the design new devices.
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Study on Behind Helmet Blunt Trauma Caused by High-Speed Bullet
The mechanism of Behind Helmet Blunt Trauma (BHBT) caused by a high-speed bullet is difficult to understand. At present, there is still a lack of corresponding parameters and test methods to evaluate this damage effectively. The purpose of the current study is therefore to investigate the response of the human skull and brain tissue under the loading of a bullet impacting a bullet-proof helmet, with the effects of impact direction, impact speed, and impactor structure being considered. A human brain finite element model which can accurately reconstruct the anatomical structures of the scalp, skull, brain tissue, etc., and can realistically reflect the biomechanical response of the brain under high impact speed was employed in this study. The responses of Back Face Deformation (BFD), brain displacement, skull stress, and dura mater pressure were extracted from simulations as the parameters reflecting BHBT risk, and the relationships between BHBT and bullet-proof equipment structure and performance were also investigated. The simulation results show that the frontal impact of the skull produces the largest amount of BFD, and when the impact directions are from the side, the skull stress is about twice higher than other directions. As the impact velocity increases, BFD, brain displacement, skull stress, and dura mater pressure increase. The brain damage caused by different structural bullet bodies is different under the condition of the same kinetic energy. The skull stress caused by the handgun bullet is the largest. The findings indicate that when a bullet impacts on the bullet-proof helmet, it has a higher probability of causing brain displacement and intracranial high pressure. The research results can provide a reference value for helmet optimization design and antielasticity evaluation and provide the theoretical basis for protection and rescue.
An Intelligent Gesture Classification Model for Domestic Wheelchair Navigation with Gesture Variance Compensation
Elderly and disabled population is rapidly increasing. It is important to uplift their living standards by improving the confidence towards daily activities. Navigation is an important task, most elderly and disabled people need assistance with. Replacing human assistance with an intelligent system which is capable of assisting human navigation via wheelchair systems is an effective solution. Hand gestures are often used in navigation systems. However, those systems do not possess the capability to accurately identify gesture variances. Therefore, this paper proposes a method to create an intelligent gesture classification system with a gesture model which was built based on human studies for every essential motion in domestic navigation with hand gesture variance compensation capability. Experiments have been carried out to evaluate user remembering and recalling capability and adaptability towards the gesture model. Dynamic Gesture Identification Module (DGIM), Static Gesture Identification Module (SGIM), and Gesture Clarifier (GC) have been introduced in order to identify gesture commands. The proposed system was analyzed for system accuracy and precision using results of the experiments conducted with human users. Accuracy of the intelligent system was determined with the use of confusion matrix. Further, those results were analyzed using Cohen’s kappa analysis in which overall accuracy, misclassification rate, precision, and Cohen’s kappa values were calculated.
Design of a Mechatronics Model of Urinary Bladder and Realization and Evaluation of Its Prototype
Annually, there are many bladder cancer patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) with urinary diversion worldwide. Until 2019, intestinal cystoplasty is still the gold standard for bladder replacement, but this therapy is always associated with severe complications. An ideal bladder substitute without using intestinal tissue remains a challenge today. In this work, an artificial mechatronics bladder (AMB) as a brand new bladder replacement approach is developed. We studied the main physiological function characteristics of a natural urinary bladder from teaching books and relevant papers. According to these characteristics, we completed an overall design of AMB and made a prototype in lab. The prototype successfully realized the functions of a natural bladder in vitro. It can expand to store urine in real time when urine is flowing into it. It can send a urination alarm when it is fully filled and can void urine automatically after receiving remote control signals. According to relevant papers and our test experience, if the prototype could be smaller and lighter and manufactured with good biocompatibility materials such as PTFE, we think it is possible for AMB to be implanted in an animal’s body, and we deduce AMB could realize the functions of a natural urinary bladder in vivo. After thorough validation from animal testing, we hope AMB can be a good clinical option for bladder removal patients in the future.
Analysis of Spiders’ Joint Kinematics and Driving Modes under Different Ground Conditions
Although the hydraulic transmission system in spider legs is well known, the spider’s mechanism of locomotion during different terrain conditions still need to be explored further. In this study, spider locomotion was observed in detail on three pavement test platforms: horizontal hard pavement, horizontal soft pavement, and sloped soft pavement. The movement characteristics and joint kinematics of Grammostola rosea legs were captured by high-speed cameras and Simi Motion 3D tracking software. These observations showed that the gait pattern was basically consistent with an alternating tetrapod gait; however, the pattern observed on the sloped soft pavement was slightly different from that of the two horizontal pavements. In particular, the duty factor of the spiders was 0.683 when walking on the horizontal hard pavement, 0.668 on the horizontal soft pavement, and 0.630 on the sloped soft pavement. The duty factor was greater than 60% in all three pavement environments, which was minimal when walking on the sloped soft pavement. This pattern showed that spiders might have superior stability when walking, but their stability decreased in the sloped soft pavement environment. The ranges of joint angles through the spiders’ gait cycles in every pavement environment were also analysed and compared. The findings showed that the hydraulically driven femur-patella and tibia-metatarsal joint angles varied widely, which confirmed that hydraulically driven joints had major functions and obvious effects on the walking process. The kinematic patterns identified in this study provide improved understanding of the hydraulic transmission mechanisms, the factors that affect motion stability, and the design of biomimetic systems.
Aerodynamic Performance of a Passive Pitching Model on Bionic Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles
Reducing weight and increasing lift have been an important goal of using flapping wing micro air vehicles (FWMAVs). However, FWMAVs with mechanisms to limit the angle of attack (α) artificially by active force cannot meet specific requirements. This study applies a bioinspired model that passively imitates insects’ pitching wings to resolve this problem. In this bionic passive pitching model, the wing root is equivalent to a torsional spring. α obtained by solving the coupled dynamic equation is similar to that of insects and exhibits a unique characteristic with two oscillated peaks during the middle of the upstroke/downstroke under the interaction of aerodynamic, torsional, and inertial moments. Excess rigidity or flexibility deteriorates the aerodynamic force and efficiency of the passive pitching wing. With appropriate torsional stiffness, passive pitching can maintain a high efficiency while enhancing the average lift by 10% than active pitching. This observation corresponds to a clear enhancement in instantaneous force and a more concentrated leading edge vortex. This phenomenon can be attributed to a vorticity moment whose component in the lift direction grows at a rapid speed. A novel bionic control strategy of this model is also proposed. Similar to the rest angle in insects, the rest angle of the model is adjusted to generate a yaw moment around the wing root without losing lift, which can assist to change the attitude and trajectory of a FWMAV during flight. These findings may guide us to deal with various conditions and requirements of FWMAV designs and applications.
Biomechanical Evaluation and Strength Test of 3D-Printed Foot Orthoses
Foot orthoses (FOs) are commonly used as interventions for individuals with flatfoot. Advances in technologies such as three-dimensional (3D) scanning and 3D printing have facilitated the fabrication of custom FOs. However, few studies have been conducted on the mechanical properties and biomechanical effects of 3D-printed FOs. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the mechanical properties of 3D-printed FOs and determine their biomechanical effects in individuals with flexible flatfoot. During mechanical testing, a total of 18 FO samples with three orientations (0°, 45°, and 90°) were fabricated and tested. The maximum compressive load and stiffness were calculated. During a motion capture experiment, 12 individuals with flatfoot were enrolled, and the 3D-printed FOs were used as interventions. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected during walking by using an optical motion capture system. A one-way analysis of variance was performed to compare the mechanical parameters among the three build orientations. A paired -test was conducted to compare the biomechanical variables under two conditions: walking in standard shoes (Shoe) and walking in shoes embedded with FOs (Shoe+FO). The results indicated that the 45° build orientation produced the strongest FOs. In addition, the maximum ankle evertor and external rotator moments under the Shoe+FO condition were significantly reduced by 35% and 16%, respectively, but the maximum ankle plantar flexor moments increased by 3%, compared with the Shoe condition. No significant difference in ground reaction force was observed between the two conditions. This study demonstrated that 3D-printed FOs could alter the ankle joint moments during gait.