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Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 29-41
http://dx.doi.org/10.1533/abbi.2005.0024

Design, Sensing and Control of a Robotic Prosthetic Eye for Natural Eye Movement

J. J. Gu,1 M. Meng,2 A. Cook,3 and P. X. Liu4

1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada B3J 2X4
2Department of Electronic Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
3Dean of Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Alberta, 3-48 Corbett Hall, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2G4
4Department of Systems and Computer Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1S 5B6

Copyright © 2006 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Loss of an eye is a tragedy for a person, who may suffer psychologically and physically. This paper is concerned with the design, sensing and control of a robotic prosthetic eye that moves horizontally in synchronization with the movement of the natural eye. Two generations of robotic prosthetic eye models have been developed. The first generation model uses an external infrared sensor array mounted on the frame of a pair of eyeglasses to detect the natural eye movement and to feed the control system to drive the artificial eye to move with the natural eye. The second generation model removes the impractical usage of the eye glass frame and uses the human brain EOG (electro-ocular-graph) signal picked up by electrodes placed on the sides of a person's temple to carry out the same eye movement detection and control tasks as mentioned above. Theoretical issues on sensor failure detection and recovery, and signal processing techniques used in sensor data fusion, are studied using statistical methods and artificial neural network based techniques. In addition, practical control system design and implementation using micro-controllers are studied and implemented to carry out the natural eye movement detection and artificial robotic eye control tasks. Simulation and experimental studies are performed, and the results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the research project reported in this paper.