Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 267-274

Proof of Concept: Model Based Bionic Muscle with Hyperbolic Force-Velocity Relation

D. F. B. Haeufle,1,2 M. Günther,1,3 R. Blickhan,3 and S. Schmitt1,2

1Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Sport- und Bewegungswissenschaft, Allmandring, Stuttgart, Germany
2Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart Research Centre for Simulation Technology (SRC SimTech), Pfaffenwaldring, Stuttgart, Germany
3Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Institut für Sportwissenschaft, Lehrstuhl für Bewegungswissenschaft, Seidelstrasse, Jena, Germany

Copyright © 2012 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Recently, the hyperbolic Hill-type force-velocity relation was derived from basic physical components. It was shown that a contractile element CE consisting of a mechanical energy source (active element AE), a parallel damper element (PDE), and a serial element (SE) exhibits operating points with hyperbolic force-velocity dependency. In this paper, a technical proof of this concept was presented. AE and PDE were implemented as electric motors, SE as a mechanical spring. The force-velocity relation of this artificial CE was determined in quick release experiments. The CE exhibited hyperbolic force-velocity dependency. This proof of concept can be seen as a well-founded starting point for the development of Hill-type artificial muscles.