Applied Bionics and Biomechanics / 2017 / Article / Tab 4

Review Article

Influence of Cleats-Surface Interaction on the Performance and Risk of Injury in Soccer: A Systematic Review

Table 4

Studies regarding the shoe-surface interaction on injury risk.

AuthorSampleGround and cleat typeMethods and instrumentsVariablesConclusionsQuality index score (%)

Walter and Ng [29]36 male children:
8 to 11 years
Ground:
(i) Not specified
Footwear condition:
(i) Cleats with studs
(ii) Cleats without studs
Tasks:
(i) A straight run
Instruments:
(i) Plantar pressure insoles
(ii) High-speed video
(i) Length of time from heel strike to heel lift
(ii) Ankle dorsiflexion angle
(iii) Plantar pressure distribution
The use of cleats with studs imposes a significant increase in dorsiflexion, which increases pressure on the growth center of the calcaneus. The high incidence of calcaneal apophysitis and the use of shoes with cleats in young populations might be related.34,38%

Smith et al. [30]6 male soccer players:
25 ± 4.18 years
79.7 ± 9.32 Kg
Ground:
(i) Natural grass
Footwear condition:
(i) TF
(ii) SG
Tasks:
(i) A straight line slow (4,4 m/s) and fast running (5,4 m/s)
Instruments:
(i) Force platform
(i) Impact peak and loading rate
(ii) Maximal breaking and propulsion forces
(iii) Maximal medial and lateral forces
The aluminum cleats impose increased vertical forces and loading rates being consequently probably more associated with repeated impact injuries. Its use in hard grounds seems to be not advised.43,75%

Livesay et al. [38]A mechanical testing device was used instead of a soccer player sample.Ground:
(i) Natural grass
(ii) 4 different artificial grass fields
Footwear condition:
(i) TF
(ii) FG
Tasks:
(i) Mimic a change of direction maneuver under a compressive load of 333 N
Instruments:
(i) Mechanical testing device
(i) Peak torque
(ii) Rotational stiffness
The highest peak torques were developed by the FG model on the FieldTurf tray and by the TF model on Astroturf field combinations. The lowest peak torques were developed on natural grass field.65,63%

Kaila [31]15 male soccer players:
19.5 ± 1.4 years
70.1 ± 7.6 Kg
1.76 ± 0.06 meters
Ground:
(i) Artificial grass
Footwear condition:
(i) 2 FG rounded
(ii) 2 FG bladed
Tasks:
(i) Straight-ahead run
(ii) 30° and 60° sidestep cutting
Instruments:
(i) Motion capture system
(ii) Force platform
(i) Internal/external tibia moments
(ii) Valgus/varus moments
(iii) Anterior/posterior joint forces
(iv) Knee flexion angles
(v) Vertical ground reaction forces
Different cleat type showed no difference on knee loading for each maneuver.68,75%

Gehring et al. [32]6 male soccer players:
25.2 ± 1.4 years
77.8 ± 8.3 Kg
183.2 ± 3.4 cm
Ground:
(i) Artificial grass
Footwear condition:
(i) FG rounded
(ii) FG bladed
Tasks:
(i) A 180° turning movement
Instruments:
(i) Motion capture system
(ii) Force platform
(iii) EMG recorder
(i) Maximum ground reaction force (Fz, Fx, Fy)
(ii) Peak EMG activity (quadriceps/hamstrings)
(iii) Knee joint moments (flexion/extension)
Round and bladed studs showed no differences in externally applied knee joint loads.
Higher activation of quadriceps femoris with round studs was showed during initial phase of stance.
62,50%

Queen et al. [16]36 soccer players:
20.83 ± 3.05 years
71.12 ± 10.38 Kg
1.712 ± 0.082 meters
(19 males and 17 females)
Ground:
(i) Artificial grass
Footwear condition:
(i) TF
(ii) HG
(iii) FG rounded
(iv) FG bladed
Tasks:
(i) Running with side cut
(ii) Change of direction of 180°
Instruments:
(i) Plantar pressure insoles
(i) Total time contact
(ii) The contact area
(iii) Maximum strength
(iv) Peak pressure
(v) Force time integral of the medial region, middle and side of the forefoot
In changing the direction of 180° and run with side cut, the foot peak pressure was significantly lower with the TF model compared with all others in both gender.
Force time integral of the lateral forefoot region was higher on the bladed model, compared to the TF model in the males.
In males, the total area of contact was significantly lower in the FG model compared to the TF model.
In females, the force time integral and the medial forefoot maximum force was significantly lower with the TF model compared to all others.
78,13%

Villwock et al. [12]A mechanical testing device was used instead of a soccer player sample.Ground:
(i) 2 natural grass
(ii) 2 artificial grass
Footwear condition:
(i) 10 different models:
(ii) 4 (rounded studs)
(iii) 3 (bladed studs)
(iv) 2 (replaceable studs)
(v) 1 TF
Tasks:
(i) Mobile testing apparatus was used to apply rotations at the shoe-surface interface.
Instruments: mechanical testing device
(i) Maximum torque
(ii) Rotational stiffness
Artificial grass fields showed increased rotational traction compared to natural grass which may lead to higher risk of injury. Maximum torque and rotational stiffness were not influenced by the studs’ pattern.
More malleable construction of the upper shoe can allow greater pronation during leg internal rotation. This can increase the probability of tibioperoneal rupture.
71,88%

Stefanyshyn et al. [33]12 soccer players:
26.4 ± 6.2 years
74.0 ± 7.4 Kg
176.4 ± 4.1 cm
A mechanical testing device was also used.
Ground:
(i) Artificial grass
Footwear condition:
(i) Running shoe
(ii) FG rounded
(iii) SG rounded
(iv) SG bladed
Tasks:
(i) Cutting and turning movements at 4.0 ms−1
(ii) Translational traction
(iii) Rotational traction
Instruments:
(i) Mechanical testing device
(ii) Force platform
(iii) Motion capture system
(i) Ankle joint moments: plantar/flexion; external rotation; eversion
(ii) Knee joint moments: extension; external rotation; abduction
(iii) Translational
(iv) Rotational traction
Cutting movement: no significant differences in resultant ankle and knee joint moments between the shoe conditions.
Turning movement: the FG (round), SG (round), and SG (bladed) had higher ankle and knee rotation moments than the running shoe.
An increased rotational traction increases ankle and knee joint loading which in turn could potentiate a higher incidence of injury.
56,25%

Müller et al. [34]15 soccer players:
20.7 ± 2.8 years
71.6 ± 5.4 Kg
176.3 ± 5.6 cm
Ground:
(i) Artificial grass
Footwear condition:
(i) Cleat with studs completely removed
(ii) Prototype
(iii) FG
(iv) SG
Tasks:
(i) 135° turning movement
Instruments:
(i) Motion capture system
(ii) Force platform
(i) Peak force (Fz, a-p)
(ii) Foot angles
(iii) Shank angles
(iv) Foot translation
(v) Maximum ankle and knee moments
Movement patterns for turning in different cleats were influenced by stud configuration and were primary found in the distal part of the lower extremities.
Soccer players showed reduced mediolateral foot translation and increased ankle moments due to high and unsuitable traction.
Cleats with studs completely removed (low traction) lead to movement adaptations in response to an increased risk of slipping.
62,50%

Bentley et al. [21]29 male amateur soccer players
Without anthropometric data of the sample
Ground:
(i) Artificial grass
Footwear condition:
(i) SG rounded
(ii) SG bladed
Tasks:
(i) Straight run
(ii) Slalom
Instruments:
(i) Plantar pressure insoles
(i) Peak pressure
(ii) Pressure–time integral over 11 clinically relevant areas of the foot
The model with rounded studs can be considered more secure since it features normal pressure distributions while the model with bladed studs is potentially more harmful once it reveals increased pressures on the lateral border of the foot.68,75%

Galbusera et al. [17]A mechanical testing device was used instead of a soccer player sample.Ground:
(i) Artificial grass
(ii) Natural grass
Footwear condition:
(i) FG rounded
(ii) FG bladed
(iii) SG rounded
Tasks:
(i) Static preload of 1000 N and a rotation speed of 45°s−1 until a rotation of 140° was reached
Instruments:
Mechanical testing device
(i) Peak torque
(ii) Rotational stiffness
Stiffness values were smaller on natural compared to synthetic field. No differences were found between models with bladed studs and those with rounded studs. This study does not confirm the hypothesis that blade-shaped cleats may be more associated with increased risk of noncontact injuries.65,63%

Brock et al. [35]14 soccer players: 20.1 ± 1.4 years 85.6 ± 9,7 Kg
1.81 ± 0.04 meters
Ground:
(i) Artificial grass
Footwear condition:
(i) Running shoe
(ii) Cleats with artificial grass studs
(iii) Cleats with natural studs
Tasks:
(i) 180° cut
(ii) Single-leg 90° land cut
Instruments:
(i) Motion capture system
(ii) Force platform
(i) Peak vertical and medial ground reaction forces
(ii) Vertical loading rate
(iii) Ankle and knee kinematic (range of movement, peak velocity, and peak angle)
Few differences in ground reaction forces or kinematic variables were observed between the shoe conditions. However, during 180° cut movement, natural grass studs produced the lowest peak medial ground reaction forces compared to other two models.81,25%

Butler et al. [36]28 soccer players
(i) 14 males:
22.1 ± 3.9 years
73.3 ± 11.5 Kg
1.77 ± 0.66 meters
(ii) 14 females
22.8 ± 3.1 years
64.4 ± 9.2 Kg
1.68 ± 0.07 meters
Ground:
(i) Artificial grass
Footwear condition:
(i) Running shoe
(ii) TF
(iii) FG bladed
Tasks:
(i) Header of a ball
Instruments:
(i) Motion capture system
(ii) Force platform
(i) Peak dorsiflexion angle
(ii) Peak plantarflexion moment
(iii) Peak knee flexion angle
(iv) Peak knee extension moment
(v) Peak hip flexion and extension moment
(vi) Peak vertical ground reaction force
Male soccer players exhibited an increased dorsiflexion with the bladed cleat compared to the running shoes or TF model. Female soccer players exhibited a reduction in peak knee flexion with the bladed cleat condition. The more rigid shoes seem to impair the female reception mechanism.81,25%

Silva et al. [37]28 male soccer players without ankle sprain history: 23.13 ± 1.9 years
68.36 ± 5.20 Kg
1.76 ± 0.06 meters
All players presented pes cavus.
Ground:
(i) Artificial grass
Footwear condition:
(i) TF
(ii) HG
(iii) FG
Tasks:
(i) Five consecutive lateral jumps at a cadence of 120 beats per minute
Instruments:
(i) Pressure platform
(ii) Force platforms
(iii) Motion capture system
(iv) EMG system
(v) Isokinetic dynamometer
(i) Ankle eversion/inversion range of movement
(ii) Loading rate of the vertical and lateral force
(iii) Lateral and rearward displacement and speed of the COP
(iv) Activation time of the long and short peroneals
In healthy soccer players, the contributor variables for ankle sprain were not influenced by the TF, HG, and FG cleats.
The conclusions were similar even after an evertor-oriented fatigue protocol.
81,25%