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Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 4539178, 19 pages
Research Article

Macrodamage Accumulation Model for a Human Femur

1Department of Biomedical, Industrial and Human Factors Engineering, Wright State University, Dayton, OH 45435, USA
2Mechanical Engineering and Economic Sciences, Institute for Materials Science and Welding, Graz University of Technology, Kopernikusgasse 24/I, 8010 Graz, Austria
3Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation, Miami Valley Hospital, Dayton, OH 45409, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Tarun Goswami

Received 22 April 2017; Accepted 19 June 2017; Published 29 August 2017

Academic Editor: Estefanía Peña

Copyright © 2017 Farah Hamandi and Tarun Goswami. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The objective of this study was to more fully understand the mechanical behavior of bone tissue that is important to find an alternative material to be used as an implant and to develop an accurate model to predict the fracture of the bone. Predicting and preventing bone failure is an important area in orthopaedics. In this paper, the macrodamage accumulation models in the bone tissue have been investigated. Phenomenological models for bone damage have been discussed in detail. In addition, 3D finite element model of the femur prepared from imaging data with both cortical and trabecular structures is delineated using MIMICS and ANSYS® and simulated as a composite structure. The damage accumulation occurring during cyclic loading was analyzed for fatigue scenario. We found that the damage accumulates sooner in the multiaxial than in the uniaxial loading condition for the same number of cycles, and the failure starts in the cortical bone. The damage accumulation behavior seems to follow a three-stage growth: a primary phase, a secondary phase of damage growth marked by linear damage growth, and a tertiary phase that leads to failure. Finally, the stiffness of the composite bone comprising the cortical and trabecular bone was significantly different as expected.