Applied Bionics and Biomechanics / 2019 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

Gait Characteristics of Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy during Inclined Treadmill Walking under a Virtual Reality Environment

Table 3

Descriptive statistics for key gait variables of CP and TD children under two walking conditions (level and uphill treadmill walking) and results of two-way ANOVA for differences in the group (CP or TD children), walking condition, and interaction.

ParametersLevelUphill (+10 degree) value of ANOVA
CPTDCPTDGroupWalking conditionInteraction
MeanSDMeanSDMeanSDMeanSD

Speed (m/s)0.420.160.640.060.320.140.580.07<0.01<0.010.494
Stride length (m)0.520.190.680.120.390.160.650.140.003<0.010.001
Step width (m)0.090.020.120.040.090.030.110.040.050.1350.199
Stance phase (%)71.124.2366.20.9273.953.567.491.07<0.01<0.010.063
Peak trunk flexion (°)8.124.076.011.857.214.324.563.10.0690.2280.779
Peak trunk extension (°)-2.72.75-0.161.381.064.480.623.850.3750.0260.132
Peak trunk rotation (°)4.848.904.966.672.868.539.215.230.4930.2240.017
Peak trunk lateral flexion (°)-2.306.926.362.508.286.014.503.660.2260.2410.47
Peak pelvic anterior tilt (°)12.465.212.934.3526.076.9426.37.380.88<0.010.865
Peak pelvic posterior tilt (°)7.344.498.94.4821.017.1321.97.70.593<0.010.682
Peak pelvic oblique (°)-2.887.28-2.533.29-5.867.55-5.474.300.95<0.010.941
Peak hip flexion (°)39.819.3238.917.3349.6511.452.510.260.786<0.010.292
Peak hip extension (°)6.627.623.366.6111.287.267.168.360.182<0.010.684
Peak hip abduction (°)9.9810.189.853.778.479.366.332.960.8160.0260.28
Peak hip adduction (°)2.7416.794.624.991.3011.205.185.030.5810.7610.459
Peak knee flexion during LR (°)27.156.4320.549.9544.636.734.6610.09<0.01<0.010.333
Peak knee flexion (°)60.748.1165.6311.1860.587.7267.065.440.0440.5460.454
Peak knee extension (°)12.756.94.234.814.617.2410.496.57<0.01<0.010.063
MeanSDMeanSDMeanSDMeanSD
Peak ankle dorsiflexion (°)17.556.5311.863.5924.185.8118.644.3<0.01<0.010.932
Peak ankle plantarflexion (°)-5.587.62-14.276.142.737.36-9.576.64<0.01<0.010.174
Knee flexion at IC (°)23.497.866.936.0143.886.2126.7413.21<0.01<0.010.878
Ankle sagittal angle at IC (°)-1.148.18-5.434.611.317.051.465.82<0.01<0.010.004
Peak hip extension moment (/kg)0.540.180.360.090.790.190.550.15<0.01<0.010.395
Peak hip flexion moment (/kg)-0.170.07-0.160.07-0.100.05-0.080.040.398<0.010.852
Peak hip abduction moment (/kg)0.440.210.620.120.390.140.540.090.0180.1130.596
Peak knee abduction moment (/kg)0.110.050.100.050.120.060.150.080.8980.0660.179
Peak knee adduction moment (/kg)0.110.110.120.110.110.130.120.110.7370.780.962
First peak knee extension moment (/kg)0.140.160.150.080.090.120.230.150.0320.6570.057
Peak knee flexion moment (/kg)-0.240.14-0.220.19-0.240.15-0.250.110.9080.4230.584
First knee peak flexion moment (/kg)-0.230.15-0.190.11-0.230.16-0.240.130.820.3680.392
Peak ankle plantarflexion moment (/kg)0.760.260.990.190.740.160.910.21<0.010.2550.545
Peak ankle dorsiflexion moment (/kg)-0.050.06-0.090.05-0.020.01-0.060.03<0.010.010.996
COM-COP anterior distance (m)0.120.050.140.050.030.040.060.050.077<0.010.838
COM-COP posterior distance (m)0.090.080.220.190.140.140.270.130.0880.0920.764
COM-COP medial distance (m)0.150.040.150.020.160.040.140.020.6960.6280.555
COM-COP lateral distance (m)-0.090.04-0.040.04-0.080.07-0.030.030.070.320.624

Abbreviations: LR = load responding; IC = initial contact; CP = cerebral palsy; TD = typically developing.

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