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Advances in Civil Engineering
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 8987626, 11 pages
Research Article

Numerical Simulations of Restrained Shrinkage Cracking in Glass Fibre Reinforced Shotcrete Slabs

KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Concrete Structures, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden

Correspondence should be addressed to Anders Ansell; es.htk.vyb@llesna.sredna

Received 9 February 2017; Accepted 9 April 2017; Published 3 May 2017

Academic Editor: Peng Zhang

Copyright © 2017 Andreas Sjölander and Anders Ansell. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Modern tunnels in hard rock are usually constructed by drill and blast with the rock reinforced by shotcrete (sprayed concrete) in combination with rock bolts. The irregular rock surface and the projection method of shotcrete lead to a tunnel lining of varying thickness with unevenly distributed stresses that affect the risk of cracking during shrinkage of the young and hardening material. Depending on water conditions, shotcrete is sprayed directly either onto the rock surface or over a drainage system, creating a fully restrained or an end-restrained structural system. In this paper, a method for nonlinear numerical simulations has been demonstrated, for the study of differences in stress build-up and cracking behaviour of restrained shotcrete slabs subjected to shrinkage. Special focus was given to the effects of the irregular shape and varying thickness of the shotcrete. The effects of glass fibre reinforcement and bond were implemented in the study by changing the fracture energy in bending and in the interaction between shotcrete and the substrate. The study verifies that an end-restrained shotcrete slab is prone to shrinkage induced cracking and shows the importance of a continuous bond to avoid wide shrinkage cracks when shotcrete is sprayed directly onto the rock.