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Advances in Civil Engineering publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of civil engineering. The journal welcomes submissions across a range of disciplines, and publishes both theoretical and practical studies.
Chief Editor, Professor Vipulanandan, is based at the University of Houston and his current research interests are in geotechnical, materials and geoenvironmental engineering.
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Flood Analysis with HEC-RAS: A Case Study of Tigris River
Floods are seen in countries in tropical climatic zones, both in terms of quantity and harm. The non-tropical climate countries such as Turkey are also affected by the floods. The geographical structure of Turkey is extremely complex and varies even at short distance. Therefore, the shape and effects of the floods vary from region to region. Considering the peculiar state of nature, floods, which are the greatest disasters after the earthquake, are unlikely to occur. But floods are becoming more risky for human beings day by day because of the population growth, need of water and settlements, wrong zoning plan, and unplanned engineering practices. Regulation comes at the beginning of measures to be taken to minimize the damages that occur from the floods. To do these studies, it must be specified the changes which bridges on the rivers and hydraulics structures like regulator cause in cross sections and the effects of the changes to water surface profile due to the natural state of the land. In order to determine water surface profiles, many software packages have been developed for facilitating the analysis and calculation. HEC-RAS is one of them. In this study, the floodplain analysis was handled between Diyarbakır-Silvan Highway and historical Ten-Eyed Bridge. There are three bridges, and one of which are historical bridges, as well as fertile agricultural lands, facilities, and hospitals in the Dicle University campus, the Hevsel Gardens on the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage List, and some residential areas on the route under study. The aim of the study we have done in this much important route is to evaluate the flood areas and create a flood hazard map which can predict risky areas. And also contributing to the Tigris River Rehabilitation Project is one of the aims. About methodology, the 1/1000 maps of the study area were digitized using the AutoCAD Civil 3D program and cross sections were made by obtaining the digital elevation models of the region. The obtained cross sections were defined in the HEC-RAS software, and the hydraulic characteristics of the flood bed and the water surface profiles of the Q25, Q50, Q100, and Q500 flood recurring and one-dimensional floodplain analysis of the Tigris River were determined.
Microannulus Formation Mechanism at the Cementing Interface of a Thermal Recovery Well during Cyclic Steam Injection
During the thermal recovery of heavy oil when using cyclic steam injection technology, a microannulus tends to form at the cementing interface subjected to high temperature and pressure during steam injection, and large temperature and pressure differences after injection can lead to wellbore integrity failure. In this study, a thermomechanical coupled finite element casing-cement-formation model of a thermal recovery wellbore is established. The deformation of the wellbore during both the steam injection stage and the steam shutdown stage is analyzed. The microannulus formation mechanism at the cementing interface of the wellbore is studied. During steam injection, under the large thermomechanical coupling load, the wellbore generates a high stress that leads to elastic-plastic deformation. In the steam shutdown stage, with the load on the wellbore decreasing, elastic deformation recovers mostly, while plastic deformation continues. If the plastic deformation is large enough, a microannulus will form at the cementing interface. Increasing the elastic moduli of the casing, cement, and the formation can enlarge their plastic deformation during steam injection. The increase of plastic deformation of the cement or formation can enlarge the microannulus of the casing-cement interface or the cement-formation interface correspondingly in the steam shutdown stage.
Influence of Loosely Bound Water on Compressibility of Compacted Fine-Grained Soils
This study aimed to investigate the influence of loosely bound water (LBW) on the compressibility of compacted fine-grained soils and accurately determine the soil’s compression index. Four fine-grained soils (i.e., heavy clay, heavy silt, lean clay, and lean silt) and a coarse-grained soil were examined. The volumetric flask method was used to measure the LBW contents of the five soils. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was then performed to test the mineral compositions and help explain the reason why the LBW content varied between different soils. A concept of modified void ratio was proposed by assuming that LBW is a part of the solid phase in soil. Subsequently, consolidation tests and permeability tests were conducted on saturated compacted specimens. The results show that the compression indexes or permeability coefficients tend to be the same for the soils with identical initial modified void ratios. Consolidation tests were also carried out on the unsaturated compacted heavy silt of four different dry densities prepared at a water content higher than the optimum. They show that the compression of unsaturated soil occurs if pore air is discharged when the water content is less than the LBW content. This confirms the previous assumption that LBW can be regarded as a part of the soil solid phase. A modified compression index was deduced and implemented to predict the settlement of a road embankment. The result suggests that the modified compression index is capable of calculating the compression of fine-grained soils, whose water contents are higher than their LBW contents.
Evaluating the Resistance Performance of the VAEPC and the PAFRC Composites against a Low-Velocity Impact in Varying Temperature
This paper aims to evaluate the resistance performance of the vinyl acetate ethylene polymer cement (VAEPC) composite and the polyvinyl alcohol fiber-reinforced cement (PAFRC) composite against a low-velocity impact in varying temperature. Their impact resistance performances are analyzed and compared with plain mortar after 28 days of age. Low-velocity impact tests were carried out under the various room temperatures of −70°C, 70°C, and 140°C. Also, an INSTRON CEAST 9350 drop-tower system has been used to get the impact load, fracture energy, and displacement of the specimens while loading low-velocity impacts. From these tests, the failure pattern, shape, and strength of each test specimen were evaluated for the VAEPC, the PAFRC composite, and the plain mortar. Those test results showed that the flexural strength of both the VAEPC and the PAFRC composites has increased compared to that of the plain mortar. However, the compressive strength of the PAFRC composite decreased slightly after 28 days, while its flexural strength increased by 24.4% compared to that of the plain mortar. In addition, the drop test results show that PAFRC composite specimens have the highest impact fracture energy compared to other specimens at −70°C, 70°C, and 140°C, whereas plain mortar specimens have their lowest. This is because the PVA fiber included in the PAFRC acts as a bridge to suppress crack propagation and to improve energy absorption performance, which helps it resist relatively better against impact. It is also known that while the VAEPC composite and the plain mortar were destroyed in a form of being perforated, the specimens of PAFRC composite were observed to some extent to suppress the perforation failures. Therefore, under a load of low-velocity impact, the resistance performance of the VAEPC composite and the plain mortar was proven to show brittle fracture behavior, while the PAFRC showed ductile fracture behavior in virtue of PVA fiber reinforcement which improved its flexural performance. According to the SEM observation which followed the tests, the PAFRC composite as a fiber-reinforced material of the hydrophilic material was found to show the most excellent interfacial bond adhesion compared to the other composite and the plain mortar. The PAFRC composite manufactured in the study has been proven to be very useful as a reinforcement material in both high and low temperature environments.
Shallow Foundation Settlement Quantification: Application of Hybridized Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System Model
Settlement simulating in cohesion materials is a crucial issue due to complexity of cohesion soil texture. This research emphasis on the implementation of newly developed machine learning models called hybridized Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, Ant Colony optimizer (ACO), Differential Evolution (DE), and Genetic Algorithm (GA) as efficient approaches to predict settlement of shallow foundation over cohesion soil properties. The width of footing (B), pressure of footing (qa), geometry of footing (L/B), count of SPT blow (N), and ratio of footing embedment (Df/B) are considered as predictive variables. Nonhomogeneity and inconsistency of employed dataset is a major concern during prediction modeling. Hence, two different modeling scenarios (i) preprocessed dataset (PP) and (ii) nonprocessed (initial) dataset (NP) were inspected. To assess the accuracy of the applied hybrid models and standalone one, multiple statistical metrics were computed and analyzed over the training and testing phases. Results indicated ANFIS-PSO model exhibited an accurate and reliable prediction data intelligent and had the highest predictability performance against all employed models. In addition, results demonstrated that data preprocessing is highly essential to be performed prior to building the predictive models. Overall, ANFIS-PSO model showed a robust machine learning for settlement prediction.
Fatigue Damage Evaluation of Pile-Supported Bridges under Stochastic Ice Loads
The Bohai Sea is the sea area with the worst ice condition in China, and the ice loads significantly threaten the safety of structures in the sea. The intense vibrations of the pile-supported bridge under stochastic ice loads will increase the fatigue damage of a bridge structure and reduce the fatigue life of a bridge structure. In the present study, a comprehensive analysis model is presented to study fatigue damage for pile-supported bridges under ice loads in Bohai Sea. On the basis of measured statistical data of ice parameters and stochastic ice loads spectrum of Bohai Sea, the time histories of the stochastic ice loads of Bohai Sea are simulated. Fatigue damage analysis is carried out in time domain utilizing the finite element method considering soil and bridge structure interaction. The effect of soil conditions and water depth on the cumulative fatigue damage of the pile-supported bridges is studied. Numerical results indicate that in comparison with stiff soil conditions, pile-supported bridges in soft oil conditions can increase the cumulative fatigue damage substantially; pile-supported bridges in deep water also can increase the cumulative fatigue damage obviously. The study presented the first danger position of cumulative damage of the pile cross section under stochastic ice loads. The findings of this study can be used to fatigue damage evaluation and bridge construction in the ice-covered sea area.