Advances in Civil Engineering / 2018 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

A Parameter Classification System for Nonrevenue Water Management in Water Distribution Networks

Table 1

Components of water balance [14, 15, 29].

System input volumeAuthorized consumptionBilled authorized consumptionBilled metered consumption (including water exported)Revenue water
Billed nonmetered consumption
Unbilled authorized consumptionUnbilled metered consumptionNonrevenue water
Unbilled nonmetered consumption
Water lossesApparent lossesUnauthorized consumption
Metering inaccuracies
Real lossesLeaks in transmission and/or distribution mains
Leaks and overflows at a utility’s storage tanks
Leaks in service connections to customer meters