Advances in Civil Engineering / 2018 / Article / Tab 5

Research Article

A Parameter Classification System for Nonrevenue Water Management in Water Distribution Networks

Table 5

Classification of effective parameters suggested for NRW management [4, 8, 3638].

PrimarySecondaryTertiary

Physical parametersPipe propertyPipe material, type, inner or outer coating type, elapsed years, mean pipe diameter, pipe thickness, length of water supply pipe, and metal pipe ratioPipe material, mean pipe diameter, length of water supply pipe, and elapsed years
Water supply scaleAmount of daily water supply per person, water supply rate, number of demand junctions, and reservoir capacity per pipe length of water distribution systemsAmount of water supply per number of demand junctions
Facility scaleReservoir capacity, size, configuration (loop or resin type) and pipe length of DMA, area of administrative district, and number of reservoirsSize and configuration (loop or resin type) and pipe length of DMA
Facility deteriorationEvaluation, ratio and length of deteriorated pipe (age older than 20 years), external corrosion depth and circumference of pipe, internal corrosion depth of pipe and circumference, and new pipe installation per yearRatio and evaluation of deteriorated pipe
OthersSoil type (chemical classification)Included in evaluation of deteriorated pipe

Operational parametersLeaksLeak measurement facility in DMA and management, number of leaks (10 km), nightly minimum flow, and leak recovery rateNumber of leaks (10 km)
Hydraulic pressureHydraulic pressure and stagnant part of DMADemand energy ratio
OthersNumber of complaints over water quality, self-production rate of tap water, replacement rates of inlet and DMA pipe, water meter and water distribution pipe per year, and installation rate of 13 mm water meterIncluded in evaluation of deteriorated pipe

Socioeconomic parametersPopulationPopulation of water supply per pipe length of water distribution systems, population growth rate, population of water supply per number of demand junctionsPopulation of water supply per number of demand junctions and population growth rate
Financial conditionFiscal self-reliance ratio, water price cost recovery rates, and investment ratio of maintenance cost compared to expenditures and that of facility improvement cost compared to expendituresFiscal self-reliance ratio and water price cost recovery rates
OthersPercentage of homes older than 21 years and ratio of apartment units

Other parametersUser satisfaction