Research Article  Open Access
Ping Wang, Yuanjun Ma, Yongjian Zhu, Jun Zhu, "Experimental Study of BlastInduced Vibration Characteristics Based on the DelayTime Errors of Detonator", Advances in Civil Engineering, vol. 2020, Article ID 8877409, 9 pages, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8877409
Experimental Study of BlastInduced Vibration Characteristics Based on the DelayTime Errors of Detonator
Abstract
The delaytime of detonators in holebyhole blasting is generally calculated accurately considering they have great influence on the blasting effect, such as blasting vibration and blasting slungshot. The highprecision nonel detonator and digital electronic detonator are been commonly used because of their accuracy of delaytime. However, each detonator has an allowable error range of delaytime due to the difference in manufacturing process. In the initiation network, the errors of delaytime often accumulate gradually as the number of detonators increases. Therefore, theoretical delaytime and actual delaytime with error in the detonating network were discussed based on the delaytime errors of detonators. The singlefactor variable method was used to carry out the comparative test in deep hole blasting. The results showed that the particle peak vibration velocity (PPV) was 13.1783 cm/s and 3.4856 cm/s with a drop of 73.55% in comparison with a nonel detonator and digital electronic detonator, which proved that holebyhole blasting in the highprecision nonel detonator network was not achieved due to the delay error of detonators. Furthermore, the location distribution map of holes where the same section of detonators might occur was obtained. Finally, the probability of blasting in the same section changes with the number of blast holes was discovered by theoretical analysis, which provided a basis for accurate holebyhole blasting.
1. Introduction
Blasting is one of the most efficient methods for excavation in mines, hydropower projects, and tunnel. However, it also brings some harmful effects, such as blastinduced vibration. Many methods have been considered to research blastinduced vibration. Different empirical formulae and prediction models were established to explore the relationship between charge weight per delay and peak particle velocity (PPV) based on blastinduced monitoring data [1–4]. The influence of geological conditions on blast vibration was revealed combining blasting tests and numerical simulation [5–8]. Singh et al. [9] illustrated the impact of blastinduced vibration on the roof and sidewalls of underground mine caused by openpit mining. Lu et al. [10] calculated the equivalent blast load applied to the blast hole wall in different blasting and estimated the peak blasting load and peak particle velocity through the commercial dynamic FEM software ANSYS/LSDYNA. Singh and Roy [11] demonstrated the damage of blastinduced vibration to reinforced concrete and cement mortar structure using blast vibration monitoring. Blair [12] proved the influence of charge weight on blast vibration during surface blasting and underground blasting, which showed that the charge weight had a great impact on surface blasting but less on underground blasting. The support vector machine was applied to predict blastinduced vibration after 80 blasting works in a dam [13].
Some attempts have been made to confirm that millisecond blasting technique was the most effective method to control blastinduced vibration by accurately designing the initiation interval time of each blast hole [14]. The studies on delaytime were gradually increasing. Shortdelay blasting has been proposed to reduce the charge weight per delay to reduce the peak particle velocity [15]. The new methodology was put forward to analyze sesmic properties during blasting in different geology conditions to ensure the optimal delaytime [16, 17]. Qiu et al. [15] reported the stress wave superposition characteristics in shortdelay blasting with numerical simulation.
However, researchers mainly focused on the length of delaytime and believed that holebyhole blasting could be realized by accurately designing the delaytime in each hole to reduce blastinduced vibration. The mechanism of delaytime in different kinds of detonators has nothing in common. At present, highprecision detonators and digital electronic detonators are most commonly used in holebyhole initiation technology. The former realize the delaytime through chemicals in detonators, and the latter use electronic chips. Both of them have delaytime errors. The delay errors of detonators would affect blastinduced vibration by changing the initiation time of blast hole. So far, few research studies concentrated on delaytime errors of detonators. This paper focuses on the influence of delaytime errors of detonators on blastinduced vibration thorough theoretical analysis and field experiments.
2. DelayTime Errors Mechanism
2.1. Theoretical DelayTime
In millisecond blasting, the postblast hole is delayed tens of milliseconds compared with the preblast hole, and the postblasting blast hole is in the state of prestress under the stress and vibration of the adjacent blasting, which strengthen the blasting effect of postblasting on the surrounding rock.
The delaytime per blast hole can be expressed as follows, where is the total theoretical delaytime in blast hole No., row No.; is the delaytime of the detonator in blast hole No., row No.; is the delaytime of the surface detonator between two holes; and is the delaytime of detonators between two rows.
The delaytime difference any two holes in the initiation network is as follows:when , holebyhole blasting can be realized.
2.2. Actual DelayTime
Because highprecision detonators are delayed by chemical agents, they have larger delaytime errors due to the influence of chemical dosage and properties compared with digital electronic detonators. The actual delaytime of the highprecision detonator is as follows:where is the total actual delaytime of blast hole No., row No.; is the delaytime error in blast hole No., row No.; is the delaytime error of the surface detonator between two holes; is the delaytime error of detonators between two rows.
The delaytime of surface detonators in openpit deep hole blast generally adopted 17 ms, 25 ms, 42 ms, and 65 ms. The delaytime in blast hole was 400 ms, and the delaytime errors [18, 19] are shown in Table 1.

The delaytime errors of highprecision detonators were larger than that of the digital electronic detonator, and the delaytime time of highprecision detonators has been identified before delivery. When there are many blast holes in a blasting, the delaytime errors accumulated gradually between rows and holes, and the delaytime of two holes may overlap as shown in Figure 1.
(a)
(b)
When , two blast holes can realize holebyhole blasting.
2.3. Initiation Probability of the Same Section
When highprecision detonators are used for surface detonation, the delaytime errors of detonators gradually accumulate with the number of surface detonators; then, the probability of the same section blasting of two blast holes will increase with the increase of the blasting scale, and the probability of the same section blasting is as follows:
3. Experimental Procedure
3.1. Experiment Scheme
In order to analyze the influence of delaytime error of detonators on the blastinduced vibration, the digital electronic detonator and highprecision detonator were used to carry out comparative tests. The areas of comparative test blasting were selected in two adjacent positions of 1135 m steps in Panzhihua iron mine. The structure of ore completes with few joints and fissures, in which the compressive strength was 140 MPa.
In the process of blasting tests, the single factor variable is used to compare the test results, that is, the hole network parameters of the two blasting areas are the same, as shown in Table 2.

According to the actual situation of the mine, three rows of blast holes were arranged in the two blasting areas, eight blast holes were arranged in the front two rows, and other seven blast holes were arranged in the last row. All were charged with emulsion explosive on site (Figure 2). The total charge of single blasting is 14 tons, only the detonators were different, and the plumshaped holes were used. The delaytime in the blasting holes was 400 ms, the delaytime between holes was 25 ms, and the delaytime between rows was 65 ms, as shown in Figures 3 and 4.
3.2. Delay Time Analysis
By analyzing the delaytime error of different detonators, it was found that the delay error of the digital electronic detonator had no effect on the initiation network because of its small errors. However, the delay error of the highprecision nonel detonator was also small, and the cumulative error was large, so it had great influence on the whole initiation network, as shown in Figure 5. The accumulated errors were 19 ms, 21 ms, and 23 ms from the first row to the third row, respectively. Obviously, the delaytime errors grow with the increase of blasting row number in the highprecision nonel detonator network.
(a)
(b)
(c)
3.3. Test Equipment
3.3.1. Device Parameters
Blastinduced vibration was monitored by the L20S blasting vibration tester of JiaoBo Technology. The main performance parameters were as follows.(a)Number of channels: parallel acquisition of three channels;(b)Frequency range: 5Hz500 Hz;(c)Amplitude range: 0.001 cm/s–35.5 cm/s;(d)Test accuracy: test accuracy ± 5% and reading accuracy 0.01%;(e)Trigger level: 0.001 cm/s35.5 cm/s, continuously adjustable.
3.3.2. Measuring Point Arrangement
After blasting networks were connected, L20S blasting vibration testers were arranged at 55 m, 65 m, and 75 m away from the blasting source to monitor the blastinduced vibration speed, as shown in Figures 6 and 7.
(a)
(b)
4. Result and Discussion
4.1. Experimental Results
It is found that the blastinduced vibration of the highprecision detonator was reduced by 60% more than the digital electronic detonator. The blastinduced vibration results at 65 m distance were compared and analyzed, as shown in Figure 8.
(a)
(b)
(c)
According to the blastinduced vibration data (Figure 9), the maximum blastinduced vibration velocity of the digital electronic detonator and highprecision detonator in X direction was 2.224 cm/s and 13.1783 cm/s, respectively, and the amplitude was reduced by 83.12%; the maximum blastinduced vibration speed in Y direction was 1.5523 cm/s and 5.9929 cm/s, and the amplitude was reduced by 74.10%; the maximum blastinduced vibration speed in Z direction was 3.4856 cm/s and 9.3371 cm/s, respectively, and the amplitude was reduced by 62.67%. The PPV in three directions was 13.1783 cm/s and 3.4856 cm/s, with a decrease of 73.55%.
5. Discussion
According to the blasting safety regulations [20], the formula of blastinduced vibration velocity can be expressed as follows:
The blastinduced vibration velocity was proportional to the blasting charge (equation (5)) due other parameters () that were same in an iron mine. While the blastinduced vibration velocity of highprecision detonators was higher than that of the digital electronic detonator, which showed that the highprecision detonator had not really realized the holebyhole blasting due to the delaytime error, several blast holes are blasted in the same section.
According to the delaytime errors of the highprecision detonator, the delaytime of each hole in the blasting area was analyzed. The delaytime rule of blast holes is as follows,
Taking this blasting comparative test as an example, the theoretical delaytime of the highprecision detonator in the blast hole was 400 ms, and the delaytime between holes and rows was 25 ms and 65 ms. Then, the actual delaytime of each hole in three rows and the holes that may be detonated in the same section is shown in Figure 10. The holes with the same color distribution may be blasted in the same section.
In Figure 10, the actual delaytime area of blast holes marked with the same color overlaps, which was likely to detonate at the same time, i.e., ; ; ; ; ; ; ; and , which were likely to blast with two or three blast holes at the same time, resulting in blastinduced vibration was greater than the expected result. It can be seen that the number of single row of blast holes and single row of blasts increases with the increase of the blasting scale. The number of blast holes in the same section increased gradually when using highprecision detonators. When using 3 × 2 (3 holes in a row, 2 rows) hole network structure, two blast holes in the same section may occur. When using 5 × 3 hole network structure, three blast holes in the same section may occur. When using (2n−1) × n (when n ≥ 2) network structure, n holes may blast in the same section.
The probability of blasting in the same section increased as the number of blast holes increases through equation (4), and the probability of initiation in the same section No. 3–8 holes was , respectively, as shown in Figure 11.
After regression analysis, it is found that with the increase of the number of holes row, the probability of the same section blasting is as follows,
6. Conclusions
(1)Based on the delaytime errors of highprecision detonators, the calculation formula of theoretical delaytime and actual delaytime of single hole in the initiation network was obtained through theoretical analysis, and the general formula of blasting probability in the same section was analyzed.(2)In view of the characteristics of 25 ms delaytime between surface holes, 65 ms delaytime between rows, and 400 ms delaytime of blast holes in openpit deep blasting, the comparative test of blastinduced vibration is carried out by using the highprecision detonator and digital electronic detonator, respectively. The blastinduced vibration produced by highprecision detonator blasting was obviously greater than that of the digital electronic detonator, and the PPV was 13.1783 cm/s and 3.4856 cm/s, with a drop of 73.55%. It was proved that different blast holes may have the same section of blasting, and the holebyhole initiation is not realized due to the delaytime errors of highprecision detonators.(3)Through the analysis of the test results, it was found that the actual delaytime could be expressed as due to the delaytime errors of highprecision detonators. With the increase of the blasting scale, the probability of the same section blasting increases gradually, and the probability of the same section blasting can be expressed as .(4)The test results showed that the digital electronic detonator is recommended for the holebyhole initiation network to improve the blasting scale, increase the blasting efficiency, and reduce the impact of blasting vibration on the stability of high slope.
Data Availability
The data used to support this study are available within the article.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.
Acknowledgments
This research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant nos. 51804114, 51774130, and 51974117), the Provincial Natural Science of Hunan (2020JJ5186), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2020M672496), and the Postdoctoral Research Foundation of Hunan University of Science and Technology (E61803).
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Copyright © 2020 Ping Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.