Advances in Civil Engineering / 2021 / Article / Fig 9

Research Article

Experimental Study and Effective Width Method for Cold-Formed Steel Lipped Channel Stud Columns with Holes

Figure 9

Buckling mode of specimen C9008-03-CH3-1. (a) Local buckling in the web. (b) Local buckling in the flange. (c) Local buckling in the lip. (d) Plastic crush. (e) Local buckling including holes.

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