Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing
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Pipelined Training with Stale Weights in Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

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Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing provides a forum for research that connects the disciplines of computer science, engineering, and mathematics using the technologies of computational intelligence and soft computing.

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Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.

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Research Article

Machine Learning Classification Techniques for Detecting the Impact of Human Resources Outcomes on Commercial Banks Performance

The banking industry is a market with great competition and dynamism where organizational performance becomes paramount. Different indicators can be used to measure organizational performance and sustain competitive advantage in a global marketplace. The execution of the performance indicators is usually achieved through human resources, which stand as the core element in sustaining the organization in the highly competitive marketplace. It becomes essential to effectively manage human resources strategically and align its strategies with organizational strategies. We adopted a survey research design using a quantitative approach, distributing a structured questionnaire to 305 respondents utilizing efficient sampling techniques. The prediction of bank performance is very crucial since bad performance can result in serious problems for the bank and society, such as bankruptcy and negative influence on the country’s economy. Most researchers in the past adopted traditional statistics to build prediction models; however, due to the efficiency of machine learning algorithms, a lot of researchers now apply various machine learning algorithms to various fields, including performance prediction systems. In this study, eight different machine learning algorithms were employed to build performance models to predict the prospective performance of commercial banks in Nigeria based on human resources outcomes (employee skills, attitude, and behavior) through the Python software tool with machine learning libraries and packages. The results of the analysis clearly show that human resources outcomes are crucial in achieving organizational performance, and the models built from the eight machine learning classifier algorithms in this study predict the bank performance as superior with the accuracies of 74–81%. The feature importance was computed with the package in Scikit-learn to show comparative importance or contribution of each feature in the prediction, and employee attitude is rated far more than other features. Nigeria’s bank industry should focus more on employee attitude so that the performance can be improved to outstanding class from the current superior class.

Review Article

A Review of Evolutionary Trends in Cloud Computing and Applications to the Healthcare Ecosystem

Cloud computing is a technology that allows dynamic and flexible computing capability and storage through on-demand delivery and pay-as-you-go services over the Internet. This technology has brought significant advances in the Information Technology (IT) domain. In the last few years, the evolution of cloud computing has led to the development of new technologies such as cloud federation, edge computing, and fog computing. However, with the development of Internet of Things (IoT), several challenges have emerged with these new technologies. Therefore, this paper discusses each of the emerging cloud-based technologies, as well as their architectures, opportunities, and challenges. We present how cloud computing evolved from one paradigm to another through the interplay of benefits such as improvement in computational resources through the combination of the strengths of various Cloud Service Providers (CSPs), decrease in latency, improvement in bandwidth, and so on. Furthermore, the paper highlights the application of different cloud paradigms in the healthcare ecosystem.

Review Article

On Facial Expression Recognition Benchmarks

Facial expression is an important form of nonverbal communication, as it is noted that 55% of what humans communicate is expressed in facial expressions. There are several applications of facial expressions in diverse fields including medicine, security, gaming, and even business enterprises. Thus, currently, automatic facial expression recognition is a hotbed research area that attracts lots of grants and therefore the need to understand the trends very well. This study, as a result, aims to review selected published works in the domain of study and conduct valuable analysis to determine the most common and useful algorithms employed in the study. We selected published works from 2010 to 2021 and extracted, analyzed, and summarized the findings based on the most used techniques in feature extraction, feature selection, validation, databases, and classification. The result of the study indicates strongly that local binary pattern (LBP), principal component analysis (PCA), saturated vector machine (SVM), CK+, and 10-fold cross-validation are the most widely used feature extraction, feature selection, classifier, database, and validation method used, respectively. Therefore, in line with our findings, this study provides recommendations for research specifically for new researchers with little or no background as to which methods they can employ and strive to improve.

Research Article

Predicting Nanobinder-Improved Unsaturated Soil Consistency Limits Using Genetic Programming and Artificial Neural Networks

Unsaturated soils used as compacted subgrade, backfill, or foundation materials react unfavorably under hydraulically bound environments due to swell and shrink cycles in response to seasonal changes. To overcome these undesirable conditions, additive stabilization processes are used to improve the volume change phenomenon in soils. However, the use of supplementary binders made from solid waste base powder materials has become necessary to deal with the hazards of greenhouse due to ordinary cement use. Meanwhile, several studies are being carried out to design infrastructures even with the limitations of insufficient or lack of equipment needed for efficient design performance. Intelligent prediction techniques have been used to overcome this shortcoming as the primary purpose of this research work. Therefore, in this work, genetic programming (GP) and artificial neural network (ANN) have been used to predict the consistency limits, i.e., liquid limits, plastic limit, and plasticity index of unsaturated soil treated with a composite binder known as hybrid cement (HC) made from blending nanostructured quarry fines (NQF) and hydrated-lime-activated nanostructured rice husk ash (HANRHA). The database needed for the prediction operation was generated from several experiments corresponding with treatment dosages of HANRHA between 0 and 12% at a rate of 0.1%. The results of the stabilization exercise showed substantial development on the soil properties examined, while the prediction exercise showed that ANN outclassed GP in terms of performance evaluation, which was conducted using sum of squared error (SSE) and coefficient of determination (R2) indices. Generally, nanostructuring of the component binder material has contributed to the success achieved in both soil improvement and efficiency of the models predicted.

Research Article

Simulation Optimization for the Multihoist Scheduling Problem

Although the Multihoist Scheduling Problem (MHSP) can be detailed as a job-shop configuration, the MHSP has additional constraints. Such constraints increase the difficulty and complexity of the schedule. Operation conditions in chemical processes are certainly different from other types of processes. Therefore, in order to model the real-world environment on a chemical production process, a simulation model is built and it emulates the feasibility requirements of such a production system. The results of the model, i.e., the makespan and the workload of the most loaded tank, are necessary for providing insights about which schedule on the shop floor should be implemented. A new biobjective optimization method is proposed, and it uses the results mentioned above in order to build new scenarios for the MHSP and to solve the aforementioned conflicting objectives. Various numerical experiments are shown to illustrate the performance of this new experimental technique, i.e., the simulation optimization approach. Based on the results, the proposed scheme tackles the inconvenience of the metaheuristics, i.e., lack of diversity of the solutions and poor ability of exploitation. In addition, the optimization approach is able to identify the best solutions by a distance-based ranking model and the solutions located in the first Pareto-front layer contributes to improve the search process of the aforementioned scheme, against other algorithms used in the comparison.

Research Article

Feature-Level vs. Score-Level Fusion in the Human Identification System

The design of a robust human identification system is in high demand in most modern applications such as internet banking and security, where the multifeature biometric system, also called feature fusion biometric system, is one of the common solutions that increases the system reliability and improves recognition accuracy. This paper implements a comprehensive comparison between two fusion methods, named the feature-level fusion and score-level fusion, to determine which method highly improves the overall system performance. The comparison takes into consideration the image quality for the six combination datasets as well as the type of the applied feature extraction method. The four feature extraction methods, local binary pattern (LBP), gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), principle component analysis (PCA), and Fourier descriptors (FDs), are applied separately to generate the face-iris machine vector dataset. The experimental results highlighted that the recognition accuracy has been significantly improved when the texture descriptor method, such as LBP, or the statistical method, such as PCA, is utilized with the score-level rather than feature-level fusion for all combination datasets. The maximum recognition accuracy is obtained at 97.53% with LBP and score-level fusion where the Euclidean distance (ED) is considered to measure the maximum accuracy rate at the minimum equal error rate (EER) value.

Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing
 Journal metrics
Acceptance rate-
Submission to final decision-
Acceptance to publication-
CiteScore5.000
Journal Citation Indicator0.240
Impact Factor-
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Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2020, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.