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Advances in Condensed Matter Physics
Volume 2015, Article ID 198175, 27 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/198175
Review Article

The Chemistry of Bioconjugation in Nanoparticles-Based Drug Delivery System

1Physicochemistry of Carbon Materials Research Group, Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Gagarin Street 7, 87-100 Toruń, Poland
2INVEST-TECH R&D Center, 32-34 Plaska Street, 87-100 Toruń, Poland

Received 10 November 2014; Accepted 1 February 2015

Academic Editor: Mohindar S. Seehra

Copyright © 2015 Karolina Werengowska-Ciećwierz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Nanomedicine is, generally, the application of nanotechnology to medicine. The term nanomedicine includes monitoring, construction of novel drug delivery systems, and any possible future applications of nanotechnology and nanovaccinology. In this review, the most important ligand-nanocarrier and drug-nanocarrier bioconjugations are described. The detailed characterizations of covalently formed bonds between targeted ligand and nanocarrier, including amide, thioether, disulfide, acetyl-hydrazone and polycyclic groups, are described. Also, the coupling of small elements and heteroatoms in the form of R-X-R the “click chemistry” groups is shown. Physical adsorption and chemical bonding of drug to nanocarrier surface involving drug on the internal or external surfaces of nanocarriers are described throughout possibility of the formation of the above-mentioned functionalities. Moreover, the most popular nanostructures (liposomes, micelles, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, and nanohorns) are characterized as nanocarriers. Building of modern drug carrier is a new method which could be effectively applied in targeted anticancer therapy.