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Advances in Condensed Matter Physics
Volume 2015, Article ID 870602, 10 pages
Research Article

Effect of Lidocaine and Epinephrine on Human Erythrocyte Shape and Vesiculability of Blood Cells

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ljubljana University Medical Centre, Zaloška 9, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2Laboratory of Clinical Biophysics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ljubljana, Zdravstvena 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3US Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375, USA

Received 29 October 2014; Revised 27 December 2014; Accepted 12 January 2015

Academic Editor: Leonid Pryadko

Copyright © 2015 Tanja Slokar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The effect of local anesthetic composed of lidocaine and epinephrine on vesiculability of blood cells and erythrocyte shape was studied. Whole blood and plasma were incubated with lidocaine/epinephrine. Extracellular vesicles were isolated by centrifugation and washing and counted by flow cytometry. Lidocaine/epinephrine and each component alone were added to diluted blood. Shape changes were recorded by micrographs. An ensemble of captured frames was analyzed for populations of discocytes, echinocytes, and stomatocytes by using statistical methods. Incubation of whole blood and blood plasma with lidocaine/epinephrine considerably increased concentration of extracellular vesicles in isolates (for an average factor 3.4 in blood and 2.8 in plasma). Lidocaine/epinephrine caused change of erythrocyte shape from mainly discocytic to mainly stomatocytic (higher than 50%). Lidocaine alone had even stronger stomatocytic effect (the percent of stomatocytes was higher than 95%) while epinephrine had echinocytic effect (the percent of echinocytes was higher than 80%). The differences were highly statistically significant with statistical power . Lidocaine/epinephrine induced regions of highly anisotropically curved regions indicating that lidocaine and epinephrine interact with erythrocyte membrane. It was concluded that lidocaine/epinephrine interacts with cell membranes and increases vesiculability of blood cells in vitro.