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Advances in Condensed Matter Physics
Volume 2018, Article ID 5214924, 24 pages
Review Article

Droplet Drying Patterns on Solid Substrates: From Hydrophilic to Superhydrophobic Contact to Levitating Drops

1Condensed Matter Physics Research Center (CMPRC), Physics Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, India
2Laboratory of Mathematical Modeling, Astrakhan State University, Astrakhan 414056, Russia
3Centre for Advanced Studies in Condensed Matter and Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411 007, India
4Physics Department, St. Xavier’s College, Kolkata 700 016, India
5Functional Soft Matter and Materials Group (FS2M), Key Laboratory of Material Physics and Chemistry under Extraordinary Conditions, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710129, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Sujata Tarafdar; moc.liamtoh@radfarat_atajus

Received 19 December 2017; Accepted 12 February 2018; Published 3 April 2018

Academic Editor: Charles Rosenblatt

Copyright © 2018 Sujata Tarafdar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This review is devoted to the simple process of drying a multicomponent droplet of a complex fluid which may contain salt or other inclusions. These processes provide a fascinating subject for study. The explanation of the rich variety of patterns formed is not only an academic challenge but also a problem of practical importance, as applications are growing in medical diagnosis and improvement of coating/printing technology. The fundamental scientific problem is the study of the mechanism of micro- and nanoparticle self-organization in open systems. The specific fundamental problems to be solved, related to this system, are the investigation of the mass transfer processes, the formation and evolution of phase fronts, and the identification of mechanisms of pattern formation. The drops of liquid containing dissolved substances and suspended particles are assumed to be drying on a horizontal solid insoluble smooth substrate. The chemical composition and macroscopic properties of the complex fluid, the concentration and nature of the salt, the surface energy of the substrate, and the interaction between the fluid and substrate which determines the wetting all affect the final morphology of the dried film. The range of our study encompasses the fully wetting case with zero contact angle between the fluid and substrate to the case where the drop is levitated in space, so there is no contact with a substrate and angle of contact can be considered as 180°.