Article of the Year 2020
Altered Expression of Three EGFR Posttranslational Regulators MDGI, MIG6, and EIG121 in Invasive Breast CarcinomasRead the full article
Analytical Cellular Pathology provides a forum for pathologists and medical practitioners working in the cellular pathology field. Topics covered include cytology, carcinogenesis, cell receptors, biomarkers, diagnostic pathology, and immunopathology.
Chief Editor Professor Dimitrios Karamichos focuses on investigating corneal wound healing and dystrophies with a particular interest in the effect of transforming growth factor-β3 or TGF- β3 on corneal stromal cells and their extracellular environment.
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FAT1 and PTPN14 Regulate the Malignant Progression and Chemotherapy Resistance of Esophageal Cancer through the Hippo Signaling Pathway
Background. Esophageal cancer (EC) is a common malignant tumor, which brings heavy economic burden to patients and society. Therefore, it is important to understand the molecular mechanism of recurrence, metastasis, and drug resistance of esophageal cancer. Methods. Human esophageal cancer cell line TE13 (poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma) and normal human esophageal epithelial cell line het-1a were selected for aseptic culture. At the same time, 6 bottles of TE13 cell line were inoculated in logarithmic phase. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM). Cell clone formation assay was used to analyze the proliferation. Fibronectin-coated dishes were used to detect the characteristics of cell adhesion to extracellular matrix. The Transwell method was used to detect the cell invasion ability. Western blot was used to analyze the expression of Yap1, PTPN14, FAT1, and Myc. Results. Results showed that FAT1 and PTPN14 were downregulated, while Yap1 was upregulated in esophageal cancer tissues. FAT1 inhibited the proliferation, adhesion, and invasion of human esophageal cancer cell lines, which might be associated with the upregulation of PTPN14 and the inhibition of Yap1 and Myc. Conclusion. The results suggested that PTPN14 and FAT1 could regulate malignant progression and chemotherapy resistance of esophageal cancer based on the Hippo signaling pathway.
Assessment of Immune Cell Populations in Tumor Tissue and Peripheral Blood Samples from Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a common type of cancer worldwide. Strong connections have been revealed between immune cells and the pathogenesis of HNSCC. Important differences regarding the levels of immune cell subpopulations in both peripheral circulation and tumor microenvironment were emphasized, with some of them having prognostic significance. In our study, we performed an analysis of immune changes in the tumor tissue and the peripheral blood of untreated HNSCC patients, investigating the proportions of different immune cell populations in these two compartments. The local infiltrating lymphocytes were mainly cytotoxic T cells (CD8+). We have also revealed an increased level of B lymphocytes (CD19+) in the tumor microenvironment. In peripheral blood, the most important lymphocyte subtype was represented by the helper T lymphocytes (CD4+). We also found an increased proportion of circulating NK cells (CD56+). Our results showed significant differences between all investigated lymphocyte subtypes in the peripheral blood and the tumor tissue of untreated HNSCC patients, suggesting that the local and systemic expressions of antitumor immune responses are different and that investigation of immune cell proportions in peripheral circulation has different cues that do not reflect the immune infiltrate pattern within the tumor microenvironment. Further studies are necessary to unveil the complex interplay involving local and systemic events in the immune system’s fight against cancer.
Effects of Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields in Cell Vitality, Apoptosis, and Proliferation of TPC-1 Cells
Objective. To evaluate the effects of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) with different pulse durations in cell vitality, apoptosis, and proliferation of TPC-1 cells, optimize pulse parameters and expand the application range of nsPEFs. Methods. The pulse duration of 0, 300 ns, 500 ns, and 900 ns is generated with nsPEF generator. CCK-8 was used to investigate the effect of nsPEFs on the viability of TPC-1 cells. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate the apoptosis of TPC-1 after pulse treatment. The effect of nsPEFs on the proliferation ability of TPC-1 cells was detected by 5-ethy-nyl-2-deoxyuridine. The morphological changes of TPC-1 cells after pulse treatment were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Results. NsPEFs with 900 ns pulse duration can significantly affect the viability of TPC-1 cells and inhibit the proliferation ability of TPC-1 cells. In addition, nsPEFs can also induce apoptosis of TPC-1 cells. Conclusion. NsPEFs with longer pulse duration can significantly affect the biological behavior of TPC-1 cells, such as cell viability and proliferation ability, and can also induce cell apoptosis, thereby inhibiting cell growth.
circ-SIRT1 Promotes Colorectal Cancer Proliferation and EMT by Recruiting and Binding to eIF4A3
Circular RNA (circRNA), a recently identified type of endogenous noncoding RNA, has been implicated in the occurrence and development of a variety of tumors; however, whether circ-SIRT1, derived from pre-mRNA of the parental SIRT1 gene, is involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unknown, as do the potential underlying mechanisms. The expression of circ-SIRT1 in CRC cells and tissue was detected by RT-qPCR. Colony formation and Cell Counting Kit-8 assays were used to evaluate the effect of circ-SIRT1 knockdown on the proliferative ability of CRC cells. Wound healing and Transwell assays were used to assess the effect of circ-SIRT1 knockdown on the migratory and invasive capacity of CRC cells. RNA immunoprecipitation and RNA pull-down assays were employed to validate the binding of circ-SIRT1 to EIF4A3. Western blot was used to identify the changes in the expression of EIF4A3 and EMT-related proteins. The RT-qPCR results showed that circ-SIRT1 was highly expressed in CRC cells and tissue and was positively correlated with the depth of tumor invasion. Knocking down circ-SIRT1 inhibited the proliferation and invasion of CRC cells and EMT. We further found that EIF4A3 could bind to circ-SIRT1, and that overexpressing circ-SIRT1 decreased the abundance of EIF4A3 at the mRNAs of the EMT marker proteins N-cadherin and vimentin. Combined, our findings suggested that circ-SIRT1 regulates the expression of EMT-related proteins by preventing EIF4A3 recruitment to the respective mRNAs. Our results further indicate that circ-SIRT1 functions as an oncogene in CRC by promoting the proliferation, invasion, and EMT of CRC cells through the circ-SIRT1/EIF4A3/N-cadherin/vimentin pathway.
TFE3 Regulates the Function of the Autophagy-Lysosome Pathway to Drive the Invasion and Metastasis of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
Background. Accumulating evidence shows that autophagy plays a vital role in tumor occurrence, development, and metastasis and even determines tumor prognosis. However, little is known about its role in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) or the potentially oncogenic role of TFE3 in regulating the autophagy-lysosome system. Methods. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) were used to examine the expression of TFE3, P62/SQSTM1, and LC3 in PTC and paracancerous tissues. TFE3, P62/SQSTM1, LC3, cathepsin L (CTSL), and cathepsin B (CTSB) were evaluated using Western blot analysis. After inducing TFE3 overexpression by plasmid or TFE3 downregulation by small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection, MTT, wound healing, and cell migration and invasion assays were used to verify the effects on invasion, migration, and the levels of autophagy-lysosome system-related proteins such as P62/SQSTM1, LC3, CTSL, and CTSB. Results. TFE3 was overexpressed in PTC tissues compared with paracancerous tissues. Analysis of the clinicopathological characteristics of PTC patients showed that high TFE3 expression was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis. TFE3 overexpression in the PTC cell lines KTC-1 and BCPAP promoted proliferation, invasion, and migration, while TFE3 knockdown had the opposite effects. Furthermore, we identified a positive relationship among the expression levels of TFE3, P62/SQSTM1, LC3, CTSL, and CTSB. We found that silencing TFE3 inhibited the expression of P62/SQSTM1, LC3, CTSL, and CTSB in PTC cells. However, TFE3 overexpression had the opposite effects. Conclusions. The present study provided evidence for the underlying mechanisms by which TFE3 induces autophagy-lysosome system activity in PTC.
Long Noncoding RNAs Regulate the Radioresistance of Breast Cancer
Breast cancer (BRCA) has severely threatened women’s health worldwide. Radiotherapy is a treatment for BRCA, which applies high doses of ionizing radiation to induce cancer cell death and reduce disease recurrence. Radioresistance is one of the most important elements that affect the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are suggested to dominate crucial roles in regulating the biological behavior of BRCA. Currently, some studies indicate that overexpression or inhibition of lncRNAs can greatly alter the radioresistance of BRCA. In this review, we summarized the knowledge on the classification and function of lncRNAs and the molecular mechanism of BRCA radioresistance, listed lncRNAs related to the BRCA radioresistance, highlighted their underlying mechanisms, and discussed the potential application of these lncRNAs in regulating BRCA radioresistance.