MCMs in Cancer: Prognostic Potential and MechanismsRead the full article
Analytical Cellular Pathology provides a forum for pathologists and medical practitioners working in the cellular pathology field. Topics covered include cytology, carcinogenesis, cell receptors, biomarkers, diagnostic pathology, and immunopathology.
Chief Editor, Professor Karamichos, focuses on investigating corneal wound healing and dystrophies with a particular interest in the effect of transforming growth factor-β3 or TGF- β3 on corneal stromal cells and their extracellular environment.
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The Role of Rho GTPases in Motility and Invasion of Glioblastoma Cells
Astrocytomas are primary malignant brain tumors that originate from astrocytes. Grade IV astrocytoma or glioblastoma is a highly invasive tumor that occur within the brain parenchyma. The Rho family of small GTPases, which includes Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA, is an important family whose members are key regulators of the invasion and migration of glioblastoma cells. In this review, we describe the role played by the Rho family of GTPases in the regulation of the invasion and migration of glioblastoma cells. Specifically, we focus on the role played by RhoA, Rac1, RhoG, and Cdc42 in cell migration through rearrangement of actin cytoskeleton, cell adhesion, and invasion. Finally, we highlight the importance of potentially targeting Rho GTPases in the treatment of glioblastoma.
Cytochrome P450 Epoxygenase-Dependent Activation of TRPV4 Channel Participates in Enhanced Serotonin-Induced Pulmonary Vasoconstriction in Chronic Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a multi-functional non-selective channel expressed in pulmonary vasculatures. TRPV4 contributes to serotonin- (5-HT-) induced pulmonary vasoconstriction and is responsible in part for the enhanced 5-HT response in pulmonary arteries (PAs) of chronic hypoxia mice. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) is an endogenous agonist of TRPV4 and is known to regulate vasoreactivity. The levels of EETs, the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenase for EET production, and epoxide hydrolase for EET degradation are altered by chronic hypoxia. Here, we examined the role of EET-dependent TRPV4 activation in the 5-HT-mediated PA contraction. In PAs of normoxic mice, inhibition of TRPV4 with a specific inhibitor HC-067047 caused a decrease in the sensitivity of 5-HT-induced PA contraction without affecting the maximal contractile response. Application of the cytochrome P450 epoxygenase inhibitor MS-PPOH had no effect on the vasoreactivity to 5-HT. In contrast, inhibition of CYP epoxygenase or TRPV4 both attenuated the 5-HT-elicited maximal contraction to a comparable level in PAs of chronic hypoxic mice. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of MS-PPOH on the 5-HT-induced contraction was obliterated in PAs of chronic hypoxic trpv4-/- mice. These results suggest that TRPV4 contributes to the enhanced 5-HT-induced vasoconstriction in chronic hypoxic PAs, in part via the CYP-EET-TRPV4 pathway. Our results further support the notion that manipulation of TRPV4 function may offer a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of hypoxia-related pulmonary hypertension.
Cellular and Extracellular Components in Tumor Microenvironment and Their Application in Early Diagnosis of Cancers
Tumors are surrounded by complex environmental components, including blood and lymph vessels, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, immune cells, cytokines, extracellular vesicles, and extracellular matrix. All the stromal components together with the tumor cells form the tumor microenvironment (TME). In addition, extracellular physical and chemical factors, including extracellular pH, hypoxia, elevated interstitial fluid pressure, and fibrosis, are closely associated with tumor progression, metastasis, immunosuppression, and drug resistance. Cellular and extracellular components in TME contribute to nearly all procedures of carcinogenesis. By summarizing the recent work in this field, we make a comprehensive review on the role of cellular and extracellular components in the process of carcinogenesis and their potential application in early diagnosis of cancer. We hope that a systematic review of the diverse aspects of TME will help both research scientists and clinicians in this field.
GTSE1, CDC20, PCNA, and MCM6 Synergistically Affect Regulations in Cell Cycle and Indicate Poor Prognosis in Liver Cancer
GTSE1 is well correlated with tumor progression; however, little is known regarding its role in liver cancer prognosis. By analyzing the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) datasets in GEO and TCGA databases, we showed that high expression of GTSE1 was correlated with advanced pathologic stage and poor prognosis of HCC patients. To investigate underlying molecular mechanism, we generated GTSE1 knockdown HCC cell line and explored the effects of GTSE1 deficiency in cell growth. Between GTSE1 knockdown and wild-type HCC cells, we identified 979 differentially expressed genes (520 downregulated and 459 upregulated genes) in the analysis of microarray-based gene expression profiling. Functional enrichment analysis of DEGs suggested that S phase was dysregulated without GTSE1 expression, which was further verified from flow cytometry analysis. Moreover, three other DEGs: CDC20, PCNA, and MCM6, were also found contributing to GTSE1-related cell cycle arrest and to be associated with poor overall survival of HCC patients. In conclusion, GTSE1, together with CDC20, PCNA, and MCM6, may synergistically promote adverse prognosis in HCC by activating cell cycle. Genes like GTSE1, CDC20, PCNA, and MCM6 may be promising prognostic molecular biomarkers in liver cancer.
Dangerous Liaison: Helicobacter pylori, Ganglionitis, and Myenteric Gastric Neurons: A Histopathological Study
Chronic inflammation induced by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection plays a major role in development of gastric cancer. However, recent findings suggested that progression of inflammation and neoplastic transformation in H. pylori infection are more complex than previously believed and could involve different factors that modulate gastric microenvironment and influence host-pathogen interaction. Among these factors, gastric myenteric plexus and its potential adaptive changes in H. pylori infection received little attention. This study is aimed at identifying the impact of H. pylori-associated gastritis on number and morphology of nerve cells in the stomach. The distribution of density, inflammation, and programmed cell death in neurons was immunohistochemically assessed in full-thickness archival tissue samples obtained from 40 patients with H. pylori infection who underwent surgery for gastric cancer and were compared with findings on samples collected from 40 age- and sex-matched subjects without bacteria. Overall, significant differences were noted between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients. The analysis of tissue specimens obtained from those with infection revealed higher density and larger surface of the myenteric nervous plexus, as well as a significant increase in the number of gastric neuronal cell bodies and glial cells compared to controls. A predominant CD3-immunoreactive T cell infiltrate confined to the myenteric plexus was observed in infected subjects. The presence of mature B lymphocytes, plasma cells, and eosinophils was also noted, but to a lesser extent, within the ganglia. Myenteric ganglionitis was associated with degeneration and neuronal loss. Our results represent the first histopathological evidence supporting the hypothesis that H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may induce morphological changes in myenteric gastric ganglia. These findings could help gain understanding of some still unclear aspects of pathogenesis of H. pylori infection, with the possibility of having broader implications for gastric cancer progression.
Clinical Characteristics and Prognosis of Gastrointestinal Metastases in Solid Tumor Patients: A Retrospective Study and Review of Literatures
Background. According to the literature and our experience, patients with gastrointestinal metastases are relatively rare. Numerous case reports and literature reviews have been reported. We present one of the larger case series of gastrointestinal metastases. Objectives. To explore the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with gastrointestinal tract metastases, which are rare metastatic sites. Methods. Patients with gastrointestinal metastases in the setting of stage IV primary carcinomas treated at Beijing Ditan Hospital and Peking University International Hospital from November 1992 to August 2017 were included in this study. The diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract metastases was based on histopathology. Results. 30 patients (median age 56 years, 56.7% female) were included. The most common primary carcinomas associated with gastrointestinal metastases were breast (11 patients, 36.7%), stomach (9 patients, 30.0%), and lung (4 patients, 13.3%) cancer. The major pathological types were adenocarcinoma (16 patients, 53.3%) and ductal carcinoma (9 patients, 30.0%). Ten patients (33.3%) underwent local gastrointestinal treatment, and 20 patients (66.7%) underwent nonlocal treatment (involving chemotherapy alone or best supportive care). For breast cancer patients and gastric cancer patients who underwent local therapy, a significant survival advantage was observed ( and , respectively). The presence of other common metastases was identified as an independent poor prognostic factor through multivariate analysis with a HR (hazard ratio) of survival of 0.182 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11-0.523, ). Conclusion. Gastrointestinal metastases are most frequently from breast invasive ductal carcinoma. The presentation of other common metastases with gastrointestinal metastasis indicates poor prognosis, and selected patients may benefit from surgical intervention.