A New Era for Analytical Cellular PathologyRead the full article
Analytical Cellular Pathology provides a forum for pathologists and medical practitioners working in the cellular pathology field. Topics covered include cytology, carcinogenesis, cell receptors, biomarkers, diagnostic pathology, and immunopathology.
Chief Editor, Professor Karamichos, focuses on investigating corneal wound healing and dystrophies with a particular interest in the effect of transforming growth factor-β3 or TGF- β3 on corneal stromal cells and their extracellular environment.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Hsa-miR-105-1 Regulates Cisplatin-Resistance in Ovarian Carcinoma Cells by Targeting ANXA9
Purpose. Cisplatin is one of the most effective drugs for treating ovarian carcinoma (OC), which is among the most lethal types of carcinoma. However, the chemoresistance to cisplatin that develops over time leads to a poor clinical outcome for many OC patients. Therefore, it is necessary to clearly understand the molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance. In this study, we examined how Hsa-miR-105-1 functions in cisplatin-resistant OC cells. Methods. The levels of Hsa-miR-105-1 expression in cisplatin-sensitive and resistant OC cell lines were detected by qRT-PCR. The target gene of Hsa-miR-105-1 was predicted by using the TargetScan and Starbase databases and verified by the double luciferase reporter gene assay. The target gene of Hsa-miR-105-1 was identified as ANXA9, and ANXA9 expression was evaluated by qRT-PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence. To validate the function of Hsa-miR-105-1 in OC cells, we silenced or overexpressed Hsa-miR-105-1 in cisplatin-sensitive or resistant OC cell lines, respectively. Furthermore, the expression levels of several apoptosis-related proteins, including P53, P21, E2F1, Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3, were examined by western blot analysis. Results. The levels of Hsa-miR-105-1 expression were abnormally downregulated in cisplatin-resistant OC cells, while ANXA9 expression was significantly upregulated in those cells. Treatment with an Hsa-miR-105-1 inhibitor promoted the expression of ANXA9 mRNA and protein, enhanced the resistance to cisplatin, and attenuated the cell apoptosis induced by cisplatin in cisplatin-sensitive OC cells. Moreover, treatment with Hsa-miR-105-1 mimics inhibited ANXA9 expression, which further increased the levels of P53, P21, and Bax expression and decreased the levels of E2F1 and Bcl-2 expression, finally resulting in an increased sensitivity to cisplatin in cisplatin-resistant OC cells. Conclusion. We found that a downregulation of Hsa-miR-105-1 expression enhanced cisplatin-resistance, while an upregulation of Hsa-miR-105-1 restored the sensitivity of OC cells to cisplatin. The Hsa-miR-105-1/ANXA9 axis plays an important role in the cisplatin-resistance of OC cells.
Comparison of the Fatty Acid Metabolism Pathway in Pan-Renal Cell Carcinoma: Evidence from Bioinformatics
This study analyzed and compared the potential role of fatty acid metabolism pathways in three subtypes of renal cell carcinoma. Biological pathways that were abnormally up- and downregulated were identified through gene set variation analysis in the subtypes. Abnormal downregulation of the fatty acid metabolism pathway occurred in all three renal cell carcinoma subtypes. Alteration of the fatty acid metabolism pathway was vital in the development of pan-renal cell carcinoma. Bioinformatics methods were used to obtain a panoramic view of copy number variation, single-nucleotide variation, mRNA expression, and the survival landscape of fatty acid metabolism pathway-related genes in pan-renal cell carcinoma. Most importantly, we used genes related to the fatty acid metabolism pathway to establish a prognostic-related risk model in the three subtypes of renal cell carcinoma. The data will be valuable for future clinical treatment and scientific research.
Ferrotoxicity and Its Amelioration by Calcitriol in Cultured Renal Cells
Globally, acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with significant mortality and an enormous economic burden. Whereas iron is essential for metabolically active renal cells, it has the potential to cause renal cytotoxicity by promoting Fenton chemistry-based oxidative stress involving lipid peroxidation. In addition, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol), the active form of vitamin D, is reported to have an antioxidative role. In this study, we intended to demonstrate the impact of vitamin D on iron-mediated oxidant stress and cytotoxicity of Vero cells exposed to iohexol, a low osmolar iodine-containing contrast media in vitro. Cultured Vero cells were pretreated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 dissolved in absolute ethanol (0.05%, 2.0 mM) at a dose of 1 mM for 6 hours. Subsequently, iohexol was added at a concentration of 100 mg iodine per mL and incubated for 3 hours. Total cellular iron content was analysed by a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer at 372 nm. Lipid peroxidation was determined by TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive species) assay. Antioxidants including total thiol content were assessed by Ellman’s method, catalase by colorimetric method, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) by nitroblue tetrazolium assay. The cells were stained with DAPI (4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole), and the cytotoxicity was evaluated by viability assay (MTT assay). The results indicated that iohexol exposure caused a significant increase of the total iron content in Vero cells. A concomitant increase of lipid peroxidation and decrease of total thiol protein levels, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity were observed along with decreased cell viability in comparison with the controls. Furthermore, these changes were significantly reversed when the cells were pretreated with vitamin D prior to incubation with iohexol. Our findings of this in vitro model of iohexol-induced renotoxicity lend further support to the nephrotoxic potential of iron and underpin the possible clinical utility of vitamin D for the treatment and prevention of AKI.
IMP3 Immunohistochemical Expression in Inverted Papilloma and Inverted Papilloma-Associated Sinonasal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Sinonasal inverted papilloma (IP) has a propensity for malignant transformation. Although the IP-associated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is rare, it has a poor prognosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess IMP3 immunohistochemical (IHC) expression in sinonasal tumors and to compare it to the Ki-67 IHC expression and to other established clinicopathological parameters. A retrospective study was conducted on three groups which consisted of 72 cases of sinonasal IP, 20 age-matched samples of normal respiratory epithelium, and 15 cases of sinonasal SCC associated with IP, which were obtained from the archives of the Pathology Lab of Ain Shams University Specialized and Ain Shams University Hospitals during the period from January 2012 to December 2019. An IHC study was performed to evaluate IMP3 and Ki-67 expression in the three groups, with correlation of IMP3 expression to established clinicopathological parameters of sinonasal SCC on top of IP. Both IMP3 and Ki-67 showed a sharp rise in expression in the sinonasal SCC group. In addition, there were statistically significant differences in expression values between the 3 groups (). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that IMP3 and Ki-67 could be used to discriminate sinonasal SCC from control and IP lesions, with sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 81.5% for IMP3, respectively, and 100% and 62.5% for Ki-67, respectively. Spearman’s rho revealed that both IMP3 and Ki-67 were significantly related to the lymph node and tumor stages but not to the tumor grade. ROC analysis was performed to select cut-off scores for progression and survival for IMP3, and accordingly, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed correlation between IMP3 and overall survival, local recurrence-free survival, and metastasis-free survival in sinonasal SCC cases at the selected cut-off values. Based on our results, IMP3 could serve as a promising diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic marker for IP-associated sinonasal SCC.
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Is Involved in Glucocorticoid-Induced Apoptosis in PC12 Cells
Objective. The present study selected PC12 cells to construct a neuronal injury model induced by glucocorticoids (GC) in vitro, aiming to explore whether the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK)-activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4)-C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) and inositol requirement 1 (IRE1)-apoptosis signal regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)-C-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways are associated with the neuronal injury process induced by GC and provide morphological evidence. Methods. Cell models with different doses and different durations of GC exposure were established. The viability of PC12 cells was detected by the CCK-8 assay, and the apoptosis rate of PC12 cells was detected by the flow cytometry assay. The expression of microtubule-associated protein 2 (Map2); glucocorticoids receptor (GR); cellular oncogene fos (C-fos); and ERS-related proteins, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), p-PERK, p-IRE1, ATF4, ASK1, JNK, and CHOP, was observed by immunofluorescence staining. Results. The results of immunofluorescence staining showed that PC12 cells abundantly expressed Map2 and GR. The CCK-8 assay revealed that high-concentration GC exposure significantly inhibited the cell viability of PC12 cells. The flow cytometry assay indicated that high-concentration GC exposure significantly increased the apoptosis rate of PC12 cells. Immunofluorescence staining showed that GC exposure significantly increased the expression of C-fos, GRP78, p-PERK, p-IRE1, ATF4, ASK1, JNK, and CHOP. Treatment with ERS inhibitor 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) and GR inhibitor RU38486 attenuated related damage and downregulated the expression of the abovementioned proteins. Conclusion. High-concentration GC exposure can significantly inhibit the viability of PC12 cells and induce apoptosis. PERK-ATF4-CHOP and IRE1-ASK1-JNK pathways are involved in the above damage process.
Inhibitory Effect of the LY2109761 on the Development of Human Keloid Fibroblasts
Keloids are scars characterized by abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts and overproduction of extracellular matrix components including collagen. We previously showed that LY2109761, a transforming growth factor- (TGF-) β receptor inhibitor, suppressed the secretion of matrix components and slowed the proliferation of fibroblasts derived from human hypertrophic scar tissue. However, the exact mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. Here, we replicated the above results in keloid-derived fibroblasts and show that LY2109761 promoted apoptosis, decreased the phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3, and suppressed TGF-β1. These results suggest that the development and pathogenesis of keloids are positively regulated by the Smad2/3 signaling pathway and the upregulation of TGF-β1 receptors. LY2109761 and other inhibitors of these processes may therefore serve as therapeutic targets to limit excessive scarring after injury.