The Diagnostic and Clinical Significance of TFE3 Immunohistochemical Nuclear Expression in Solitary Fibrous TumourRead the full article
Analytical Cellular Pathology provides a forum for pathologists and medical practitioners working in the cellular pathology field. Topics covered include cytology, carcinogenesis, cell receptors, biomarkers, diagnostic pathology, and immunopathology.
Chief Editor, Professor Karamichos, focuses on investigating corneal wound healing and dystrophies with a particular interest in the effect of transforming growth factor-β3 or TGF- β3 on corneal stromal cells and their extracellular environment.
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Transcriptional Analysis Reveals Key Genes in the Pathogenesis of Nifedipine-Induced Gingival Overgrowth
Background. Nifedipine-induced gingival overgrowth (NGO) is a multifactorial pathogenesis with increased extracellular matrix including collagen and glycans, inflammatory cytokines, and phenotype changes of fibroblasts. However, the molecular etiology of NGO is not well understood. The objective of this study is to investigate the key genes in the pathogenesis of NGO. Methods. In this study, we examined the proliferation and migration abilities of fibroblasts derived from patients with chronic periodontitis, nifedipine nonresponder gingival overgrowth, gingival overgrowth caused by nifedipine, and healthy normal gingiva. We conducted RNA-Seq on these four groups of fibroblasts and analysed the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Results. Fibroblasts derived from NGO patients had higher proliferation and migration abilities than those of the other groups. Protein-protein interaction network analysis indicated that TGFB2, ITGA8, ITGA11, FGF5, PLA2G4D, PLA2G2F, PTGS1, CSF1, LPAR1, CCL3, and NKX3-1 are involved in the development of NGO. These factors are related to the arachidonic acid metabolism and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. Conclusion. Transcriptional gene expression analysis identified a number of DEGs that might be functionally related to gingival overgrowth induced by nifedipine. Our study provides important information on the molecular mechanism underlying nifedipine-induced gingival overgrowth.
Effects and Mechanism of lncRNA CRNDE on Sepsis-Induced Acute Kidney Injury
Objective. To investigate the effects of lncRNA CRNDE on sepsis-associated acute kidney injury in the human kidney 2 cell line and explore the potential mechanisms. Methods. HK-2 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharides to induce injuries. The expression of CRNDE and miR-146a in HK-2 cells were altered by a transient transfection assay. Cell apoptosis was detected by a flow cytometry assay, and the levels of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1β were assessed by ELISA. Furthermore, western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression levels of TLR4/NF-κB pathway-related proteins. And a luciferase reporter gene assay was used to verify if miR-146a was the target of CRNDE. Results. LPS treatment increased CRNDE expression in HK-2 cells. CRNDE overexpression enhanced cell injuries in HK-2 cells significantly increasing inflammatory cytokine levels, including TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1β, and cell apoptosis. In addition, CRNDE overexpression further activated the TLR4/NF-κB pathways in HK-2 cells. Inversely, opposite results were observed in the miR-146a mimic treatment group, and the miR-146a inhibitor could reverse the protein expression changes of TLR4/NF-κB in the si-CRNDE and LPS treatment group. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that CRNDE overexpression could activate the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway by regulating miR-146a, which accelerated LPS-induced inflammation and apoptosis in HK-2 cells.
Metformin: A Possible Option in Cancer Chemotherapy
Metformin has been used for a long time as an antidiabetic medication for type 2 diabetes. It is used either as a monotherapy or in combination with other antidiabetic medications. The drug came into prominence in diabetes and other conditions with cardiovascular risk after the landmark study of 1995 by the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study which emphasized its importance. However, the drug has been used in experimental trials in various aspects of medicine and pharmacology such as in reproductive medicine, cancer chemotherapy, metabolic diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. It has been in use in the treatment of polycystic ovarian disease and obesity and is being considered in type 1 diabetes. This study seeks to evaluate the relevance of metformin in cancer management. Different mechanisms have been proposed for its antitumor action which involves the following: (a) the activation of adenosine monophosphate kinase, (b) modulation of adenosine A1 receptor (ADORA), (c) reduction in insulin/insulin growth factors, and (d) the role of metformin in the inhibition of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS); and its resultant damage to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule is another paramount antitumor mechanism.
Altered Expression of Three EGFR Posttranslational Regulators MDGI, MIG6, and EIG121 in Invasive Breast Carcinomas
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling is a highly regulated process with a tight balance between receptor activation and inactivation in invasive breast carcinomas (IBCs) particularly in triple-negative carcinomas (TNC). Clinical trials using anti-EGFR therapies are actually performed although no activating alterations (mutations, amplifications, or rearrangements) of EGFR have been clearly recognized in order to identify new targeted modalities for IBCs. We explored mammary-derived growth inhibitor (MDGI), estrogen-induced gene-121 (EIG121), and mitogen-induced gene-6 (MIG6), three posttranslational EGFR trafficking molecules implicated in EGFR spatiotemporal regulatory pathway. We quantified MDGI, EIG121, and MIG6 at mRNA levels by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR in a series of 440 IBCs and at protein levels by using immunohistochemistry in a series of 88 IBCs. Results obtained by RT-PCR showed that in IBCs, MDGI, MIG6, and EIG121 mRNA were mainly underexpressed (25.7%, 45.0%, and 16.1%, respectively) particularly in the TNC subtype for EIG121 (60.3%). We also observed mRNA overexpression of MDGI and EIG121, respectively, in 12.7% and 22.3% of IBCs. These altered mRNA expressions were confirmed at the protein level. Some links were found between expression patterns of these three genes and several classical pathological and clinical parameters. Only EIG121 was found to have a prognostic significance (). Altered expression of these three major EGFR posttranslational negative regulators could create an aberrant EGFR-mediated oncogenic signalling pathway in IBCs. MDGI, MIG6, and EIG121 expression status also may be potential useful biomarkers (sensitivity or resistance) in targeted EGFR therapy.
The Role of Rho GTPases in VEGF Signaling in Cancer Cells
Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) consist of five molecules (VEGFA through D as well as placental growth factor) which are crucial for regulating key cellular and tissue functions. The role of VEGF and its intracellular signaling and downstream molecular pathways have been thoroughly studied. Activation of VEGF signal transduction can be initiated by the molecules’ binding to two classes of transmembrane receptors: (1) the VEGF tyrosine kinase receptors (VEGF receptors 1 through 3) and (2) the neuropilins (NRP1 and 2). The involvement of Rho GTPases in modulating VEGFA signaling in both cancer cells and endothelial cells has also been well established. Additionally, different isoforms of Rho GTPases, namely, RhoA, RhoC, and RhoG, have been shown to regulate VEGF expression as well as blood vessel formation. This review article will explore how Rho GTPases modulate VEGF signaling and the consequences of such interaction on cancer progression.
Morphological Characteristics and Correction of Long Tubular Bone Regeneration under Chronic Hyperglycemia Influence
Introduction. Unsatisfactory consequences of bone regeneration disorders in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, their high prevalence, complication number, and difficulties in treatment require further study and deeper understanding of reparative osteogenesis mechanisms under chronic hyperglycemia and finding new effective and affordable approaches to their treatment. Therefore, the aim of our work was to study the histological, ultramicroscopic, and histomorphometric features of reparative osteogenesis in rats with chronic hyperglycemia (CH), as well as to investigate the possibility of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) use in a fracture area in order to correct the negative effects of CH on reparative osteogenesis processes. Study Object and Methods. The studies were performed on 70 white laboratory rats, mature males, which were divided into the following groups: control group, animals with posttraumatic tibial defect under conditions of CH exposure, rats with experimental CH that were administered with PRP into the bone defect, and animals for the assessment of glucose homeostasis and confirmation of simulated CH. Light microscopy was performed using an Olympus BH-2 microscope (Japan). Ultramicroscopic examination was performed using REM-102 scanning electron microscope. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS-17 software package. Results. The formation of new bone tissue in animals with CH did not occur after two weeks. Only on the 30th day of reparative osteogenesis the newly formed woven bone tissue was 61.54% of the total regenerated area. It was less than the reference value by 22.89% (). On the 14th day of reparative osteogenesis, the regenerated area in a group of animals with CH and PRP injection consisted of connective tissue by 68.94% (4.94% less than in animals with CH ()) and woven bone tissue by 31.06%, (13.51% less than in the control group ()). On the 30th day, the area of woven bone tissue in a regenerate of this group was less than that of the control group by 12.41% (). Conclusion. Thus, chronic hyperglycemia contributes to inflammation delay within the bone defect site, which makes the process of reparative osteogenesis more prolonged. The results of chronic hyperglycemia effect on bone regeneration are also impairment of osteogenic cell proliferation and shift of their differentiation towards the fibrocartilage regenerate formation. The PRP corrects the negative impact of chronic hyperglycemia on reparative osteogenesis, promoting more rapid inflammatory infiltrate removal from the bone defect site and osteogenic beam formation and remodeling of woven bone into lamellar membranous bone tissue.