Analytical Cellular Pathology

Analytical Cellular Pathology / 2003 / Article

Open Access

Volume 25 |Article ID 562508 |

O. Tsybrovskyy, A. Berghold, "Application of Multilevel Models to Morphometric Data. Part 2. Correlations", Analytical Cellular Pathology, vol. 25, Article ID 562508, 5 pages, 2003.

Application of Multilevel Models to Morphometric Data. Part 2. Correlations

Received17 Oct 2002
Accepted28 Apr 2003


Multilevel organization of morphometric data (cells are “nested” within patients) requires special methods for studying correlations between karyometric features. The most distinct feature of these methods is that separate correlation (covariance) matrices are produced for every level in the hierarchy. In karyometric research, the cell‐level (i.e., within‐tumor) correlations seem to be of major interest. Beside their biological importance, these correlation coefficients (CC) are compulsory when dimensionality reduction is required. Using MLwiN, a dedicated program for multilevel modeling, we show how to use multivariate multilevel models (MMM) to obtain and interpret CC in each of the levels. A comparison with two usual, “single‐level” statistics shows that MMM represent the only way to obtain correct cell‐level correlation coefficients. The summary statistics method (take average values across each patient) produces patient‐level CC only, and the “pooling” method (merge all cells together and ignore patients as units of analysis) yields incorrect CC at all. We conclude that multilevel modeling is an indispensable tool for studying correlations between morphometric variables.

Copyright © 2003 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

More related articles

 PDF Download Citation Citation
 Order printed copiesOrder

Related articles

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.