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Cellular Oncology
Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 185-194

Population Screening for Colorectal Cancer: Faeces, Endoscopes or X-Rays?

D. Ramsoekh,1 M. E. van Leerdam,1 M. van Ballegooijen,2 J. D. F. Habbema,2 and E. J. Kuipers1

1Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
2Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Copyright © 2007 Hindawi Publishing Corporation and the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is a common cancer and the second most common cause of death. The therapeutic costs for this disease will continue to rise due to an increasing incidence and the introduction of new chemotherapeutic modalities. Colorectal carcinoma is preceded by precursor lesions, which can be used as a target for early detection and therapy. Biennial population screening with faecal occult blood tests (FOBT) lowers CRC mortality with 14–18%. Five year screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy is a cost-effective alternative, which yields a higher preventive effect when similar participation rates are achieved. Screening colonoscopy has the advantage of examination of the complete colon but disadvantages are the high participant burden and the higher demand for endoscopic personnel and endoscopy units. Future screening modalities like faecal DNA markers and CT colonography are promising but need further improvement. In Europe, faecal occult blood testing and flexible sigmoidoscopy are currently the most suitable screening modalities for colorectal cancer screening.