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Analytical Cellular Pathology
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 7190546, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7190546
Research Article

Different Cytokine and Chemokine Expression Patterns in Malignant Compared to Those in Nonmalignant Renal Cells

1Department of Urology, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
2Department of Trauma, Reconstructive Surgery and Rehabilitation Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
3Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
4Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany
5Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, BG Klinikum Unfallkrankenhaus Berlin gGmbH, Berlin, Germany

Correspondence should be addressed to Matthias B. Stope; ed.dlawsfierg-inu@epots.saihttam

Received 12 April 2017; Revised 6 June 2017; Accepted 18 June 2017; Published 9 July 2017

Academic Editor: Monica Cantile

Copyright © 2017 Nadine Gelbrich et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective. Cytokines and chemokines are widely involved in cancer cell progression and thus represent promising candidate factors for new biomarkers. Methods. Four renal cell cancer (RCC) cell lines (Caki-1, 786-O, RCC4, and A498) and a nonmalignant renal cell line (RC-124) were examined with respect to their proliferation. The cytokine and chemokine expression pattern was examined by a DNA array (Human Cytokines & Chemokines RT2 Profiler PCR Array; Qiagen, Hilden, Germany), and expression profiles were compared. Results. Caki-1 and 786-O cells exhibited significantly increased proliferation rates, whereas RCC4 and A498 cells demonstrated attenuated proliferation, compared to nonmalignant RC-124 cells. Expression analysis revealed 52 cytokines and chemokines primarily involved in proliferation and inflammation and differentially expressed not only in malignant and nonmalignant renal cells but also in the four RCC cell lines. Conclusion. This is the first study examining the expression of 84 cytokines and chemokines in four RCC cell lines compared to that in a nonmalignant renal cell line. VEGFA, NODAL, and BMP6 correlated with RCC cell line proliferation and, thus, may represent putative clinical biomarkers for RCC progression as well as for RCC diagnosis and prognosis.