Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Analytical Cellular Pathology
Volume 2019, Article ID 5026939, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/5026939
Research Article

Increased COX-2 Immunostaining in Urothelial Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder Is Associated with Invasiveness and Poor Prognosis

1Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
3Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Al-Minia, Egypt
4Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
5Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jeddah, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
6Department of Pathology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence should be addressed to Jaudah Al-Maghrabi; moc.liamtoh@ibarhgamlaj

Received 11 August 2018; Accepted 31 March 2019; Published 21 April 2019

Academic Editor: Elena Adinolfi

Copyright © 2019 Basim Al-Maghrabi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Jemal, F. Bray, M. M. Center, J. Ferlay, E. Ward, and D. Forman, “Global cancer statistics,” CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 69–90, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Bazarbashi, H. Al Eid, and J. Minguet, “Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia: 2012 Data from the Saudi Cancer Registry,” Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP, vol. 18, no. 9, p. 2437, 2017. View at Google Scholar
  3. X. R. Wu, “Urothelial tumorigenesis: a tale of divergent pathways,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 713–725, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. F. Botteman, C. L. Pashos, A. Redaelli, B. Laskin, and R. Hauser, “The health economics of bladder cancer: a comprehensive review of the published literature,” PharmacoEconomics, vol. 21, no. 18, pp. 1315–1330, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. S. Michaud, “Chronic inflammation and bladder cancer,” Urologic Oncology, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 260–268, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. E. Harris, “Cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) and the inflammogenesis of cancer,” Sub-Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 42, pp. 93–126, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. J. Fortuny, M. Kogevinas, M. Garcia-Closas et al., “Use of analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, genetic predisposition, and bladder cancer risk in Spain,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1696–1702, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. Greenhough, H. J. M. Smartt, A. E. Moore et al., “The COX-2/PGE2 pathway: key roles in the hallmarks of cancer and adaptation to the tumour microenvironment,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 377–386, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Tsujii, S. Kawano, S. Tsuji, H. Sawaoka, M. Hori, and R. N. DuBois, “Cyclooxygenase regulates angiogenesis induced by colon cancer cells,” Cell, vol. 93, no. 5, pp. 705–716, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. A. Wheeler, D. A. Hausladen, J. H. Yoon, and R. M. Weiss, “Prostaglandin E2 production and cyclooxygenase-2 induction in human urinary tract infections and bladder cancer,” The Journal of Urology, vol. 168, 4, Part 1, pp. 1568–1573, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. T. Shirahama, “Cyclooxygenase-2 expression is up-regulated in transitional cell carcinoma and its preneoplastic lesions in the human urinary bladder,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 2424–2430, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  12. S. Hara, Y. Kondo, I. Matsuzawa et al., “Expression of cycloxygenase-2 in human bladder and renal cell carcinoma,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 507, pp. 123–126, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. S. I. Mohammed, D. W. Knapp, D. G. Bostwick et al., “Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in human invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder,” Cancer Research, vol. 59, no. 22, pp. 5647–5650, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  14. C. J. Sweeney, M. S. Marshall, D. S. Barnard et al., “Cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression in primary cancers of the lung and bladder compared to normal adjacent tissue,” Cancer Detection and Prevention, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 238–244, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Al-Maghrabi, A. Buhmeida, E. Emam et al., “Cyclooxygenase-2 expression as a predictor of outcome in colorectal carcinoma,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 18, no. 15, pp. 1793–1799, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. C. Compton, D. R. Byrd, J. Garcia-Aguilar, S. H. Kurtzman, A. Olawaiye, and M. K. Washington, Eds., AJCC Cancer Staging Atlas, Springer, Second edition, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. H. Moch, P. Humphrey, T. Ulbright, and V. Reuter, WHO Classification of Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France, 2016.
  18. J. Al-Maghrabi, E. Emam, W. Gomaa et al., “c-MET immunostaining in colorectal carcinoma is associated with local disease recurrence,” BMC Cancer, vol. 15, no. 1, p. 676, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. W. Gomaa, Y. Ke, H. Fujii, and T. Helliwell, “Tissue microarray of head and neck squamous carcinoma: validation of the methodology for the study of cutaneous fatty acid-binding protein, vascular endothelial growth factor, involucrin and Ki-67,” Virchows Archiv, vol. 447, no. 4, pp. 701–709, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. V. Margulis, S. F. Shariat, R. Ashfaq et al., “Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in normal urothelium, and superficial and advanced transitional cell carcinoma of bladder,” The Journal of Urology, vol. 177, no. 3, pp. 1163–1168, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K. Diamantopoulou, A. Lazaris, E. Mylona et al., “Cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression in relation to apoptotic potential and its prognostic significance in bladder urothelial carcinoma,” Anticancer Research, vol. 25, no. 6C, pp. 4543–4549, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  22. A. Ristimaki, O. Nieminen, K. Saukkonen, K. Hotakainen, S. Nordling, and C. Haglund, “Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in human transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder,” The American Journal of Pathology, vol. 158, no. 3, pp. 849–853, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. L. Ke, H. P. Tu, H. H. Lin et al., “Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) up-regulation is a prognostic marker for poor clinical outcome of upper tract urothelial cancer,” Anticancer Research, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 4111–4116, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  24. T. Shirahama, J. Arima, S. Akiba, and C. Sakakura, “Relation between cyclooxygenase-2 expression and tumor invasiveness and patient survival in transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder,” Cancer, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 188–193, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. P. Wadhwa, A. K. Goswami, K. Joshi, and S. K. Sharma, “Cyclooxygenase-2 expression increases with the stage and grade in transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder,” International Urology and Nephrology, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 47–53, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. Yoshimura, H. Sano, M. Mitsuhashi, M. Kohno, J. Chargui, and S. Wada, “Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in patients with bladder carcinoma,” The Journal of Urology, vol. 165, no. 5, pp. 1468–1472, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. M. Moussa, Z. Omran, M. Nosseir, A. Lotfy, and T. Swellam, “Cyclooxygenase-2 expression on urothelial and inflammatory cells of cystoscopic biopsies and urine cytology as a possible predictive marker for bladder carcinoma,” APMIS, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 45–52, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. O. A. Hammam, A. A. Aziz, M. S. Roshdy, and A. M. Abdel Hadi, “Possible role of cyclooxygenase-2 in schistosomal and non-schistosomal-associated bladder cancer,” Medscape Journal of Medicine, vol. 10, no. 3, p. 60, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  29. Y. Yamada, K. Nakamura, Y. Inoue et al., “Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder,” Molecular Medicine Reports, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 791–795, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. S. I. Kim, S. M. Kwon, Y. S. Kim, and S. J. Hong, “Association of cyclooxygenase-2 expression with prognosis of stage T1 grade 3 bladder cancer,” Urology, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 816–821, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. Oku, M. Higashi, Y. Imazono et al., “Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 in high-grade human transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract,” BJU International, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 109–114, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. J. Czachorowski, A. F. S. Amaral, S. Montes-Moreno et al., “Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in bladder cancer and patient prognosis: results from a large clinical cohort and meta-analysis,” PLoS One, vol. 7, no. 9, article e45025, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. W. T. Chen, W. C. Hung, W. Y. Kang et al., “Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 in urothelial carcinoma in conjunction with tumor-associated-macrophage infiltration, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression, and tumor angiogenesis,” APMIS, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 176–184, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. C. A. Reznikoff, S. Sarkar, K. P. Julicher et al., “Genetic alterations and biological pathways in human bladder cancer pathogenesis,” Urologic Oncology, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 191–203, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. R. Gangwar, A. Mandhani, and R. D. Mittal, “Functional polymorphisms of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene and risk for urinary bladder cancer in North India,” Surgery, vol. 149, no. 1, pp. 126–134, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. H. M. Tabriz, G. Olfati, S. A. Ahmadi, and S. Yusefnia, “Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma and its association with clinicopathological characteristics,” Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 4539–4543, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. K. Naruse, Y. Yamada, K. Nakamura et al., “Potential of molecular targeted therapy of HER-2 and Cox-2 for invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder,” Oncology Reports, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 1577–1583, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  38. C. Wulfing, E. Eltze, D. Von Struensee et al., “Cyclooxygenase-2-expression in bladder cancer: tumor-biological and clinical implications,” Aktuelle Urol, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 331–338, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. P. Eschwège, S. Ferlicot, S. Droupy et al., “A histopathologic investigation of PGE2 pathways as predictors of proliferation and invasion in urothelial carcinomas of the bladder,” European Urology, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 435–441, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. Gurocak, S. Sozen, O. Erdem et al., “Relation between cyclooxygenase-2 expression and clinicopathologic parameters with patient prognosis in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder,” Urologia Internationalis, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 51–56, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. Aziz, A. Lessard, K. Moore et al., “Improved cancer specific-survival in patients with carcinoma invading bladder muscle expressing cyclo-oxygenase-2,” BJU International, vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 531–537, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus