Autoimmune Diseases / 2011 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

A Prospective Study of Lupus and Rheumatoid Arthritis in Relation to Deployment in Support of Iraq and Afghanistan: The Millennium Cohort Study

Table 3

Odds of newly reported rheumatoid arthritis and military deployment, the Millennium Cohort Study ( ).

CharacteristicsUnadjustedFinal model*Confirmed case model
OR95% CIAOR95% CIAOR95% CI

Deployment§
 Nondeployed1.001.001.00
 Deployed without combat0.470.39–0.560.590.48–0.730.700.33–1.49
 Deployed with combat#0.690.59–0.810.740.62–0.880.830.38–1.77
Sex
 Male1.001.001.00
 Female1.161.02–1.311.261.08–1.471.960.88–4.37
Birth year
 Before 19601.001.001.00
 1960–19690.720.63–0.820.640.55–0.740.940.30–2.95
 1970–19790.330.27–0.390.310.26–0.380.320.09–1.20
 1980 and later0.290.22–0.390.260.19–0.350.370.08–1.78
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic white1.001.001.00
 Non-Hispanic black2.271.97–2.621.771.51–2.080.580.21–1.60
 Hispanic1.491.20–1.851.401.11–1.761.170.41–3.36
 Other0.920.74–1.131.000.79–1.271.260.42–3.78
Education
 High school or less1.001.001.00
 Some college1.671.47–1.911.211.05–1.391.910.92–3.94
 Bachelor’s or higher degree0.880.76–1.011.100.93–1.301.570.64–3.88
Marital status
 Married1.00
 Not married0.980.87–1.11
Service component
 Active duty1.001.001.00
 Reserve/Guard0.830.74–0.930.730.64–0.830.140.02–1.35
Military pay grade
 Enlisted1.001.001.00
 Officer0.450.39–0.530.600.48–0.740.170.05–0.61
Service branch
 Army1.001.00
 Air Force0.630.55–0.730.790.67–0.92
 Marine Corps0.710.53–0.961.010.74–1.37
 Navy/Coast Guard0.670.57–0.790.740.62–0.89
Occupation
 Functional support1.001.001.00
 Combat specialist0.800.66–0.961.090.90–1.320.780.26–2.35
 Health care specialist0.600.48–0.760.660.52–0.850.500.16–1.55
 Electrical/mechanical1.030.85–1.241.070.87–1.361.120.46–2.74
 Service support1.190.97–1.441.110.91–1.361.520.56–4.12
 Other0.870.74–1.021.000.85–1.190.400.16–0.97
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 Normal/Underweight (<25)1.001.001.00
 Overweight (25 to <30)1.341.16–1.541.110.95–1.290.770.38–1.56
 Obese (≥30)2.412.07–2.801.411.20–1.671.200.49–2.91
Smoking status
 Nonsmoker1.001.001.00
 Past smoker1.391.22–1.581.130.99–1.301.630.84–3.14
 Current smoker1.541.33–1.801.191.02–1.400.560.20–1.56
Alcohol misuse**
 No1.00
 Yes1.181.04–1.36
Mental component score
 >75th percentile1.001.001.00
 >50th to 75th percentile0.730.62–0.850.890.75–1.060.720.35–1.48
 >25th to 50th percentile0.870.75–1.021.040.88–1.230.730.36–1.49
 0 to 25th percentile1.671.46–1.921.641.42–1.910.850.42–1.70
Physical component score
 >75th percentile1.001.001.00
 >50th to 75th percentile1.401.05–1.861.381.02–1.881.340.37–4.83
 >25th to 50th percentile2.992.30–3.902.722.06–3.612.560.78–8.35
 0 to 25th percentile12.259.60–15.639.036.95–11.747.892.48–25.10
Chemical/biological warfare agents
 No1.001.001.00
 Yes, 1 or more times0.980.85–1.121.471.22–1.781.430.49–4.18
Hazards requiring personal protective equipment
 No1.00
 Yes0.960.85–1.07
 Do not know1.591.17–2.18
Routine skin contact with paint, solvents, substances
 No1.00
 Yes1.391.24–1.56
 Do not know1.741.38–2.19
Microwaves (excluding microwave ovens)
 No1.001.001.00
 Yes1.441.26–1.641.140.99–1.310.800.36–1.78
 Do not know1.631.38–1.921.251.05–1.501.580.60–4.16
Pesticides (creams, sprays, uniform treatments)
 No1.00
 Yes1.391.24–1.57
 Do not know1.361.13–1.64
Pesticides (environment, living facilities)
 No1.00
 Yes1.471.30–1.65
 Do not know1.221.04–1.45
Time (years)1.441.40–1.481.311.27–1.351.190.99–1.44

AOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio.
*Final model established by removing nonsignificant, nonconfounding covariates from the full model.
Confirmed cases model is among active-duty, nonseparated participants. There were not enough confirmed cases for service branch to be tested in the model.
Adjusted odds ratios and associated 95% confidence intervals are adjusted for all other variables in the table.
§Deployed in support of the operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Indicates reference category.
#Self-report of personally witnessing or being exposed to a person’s death due to war or disaster, physical abuse, dead and/or decomposing bodies, maimed soldiers or civilians, prisoners of war, or refugees.
**Alcohol misuse is defined as at least 1 positive response to the CAGE questions (i.e., cutting down, annoyance by criticism, guilty feeling, and eye-openers) [32, 33].

Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2020, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.