Autoimmune Diseases / 2011 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

A Prospective Study of Lupus and Rheumatoid Arthritis in Relation to Deployment in Support of Iraq and Afghanistan: The Millennium Cohort Study

Table 3

Odds of newly reported rheumatoid arthritis and military deployment, the Millennium Cohort Study ( ).

CharacteristicsUnadjustedFinal model*Confirmed case model

 Deployed without combat0.470.39–0.560.590.48–0.730.700.33–1.49
 Deployed with combat#0.690.59–0.810.740.62–0.880.830.38–1.77
Birth year
 Before 19601.001.001.00
 1980 and later0.290.22–0.390.260.19–0.350.370.08–1.78
 Non-Hispanic white1.001.001.00
 Non-Hispanic black2.271.97–2.621.771.51–2.080.580.21–1.60
 High school or less1.001.001.00
 Some college1.671.47–1.911.211.05–1.391.910.92–3.94
 Bachelor’s or higher degree0.880.76––1.301.570.64–3.88
Marital status
 Not married0.980.87–1.11
Service component
 Active duty1.001.001.00
Military pay grade
Service branch
 Air Force0.630.55–0.730.790.67–0.92
 Marine Corps0.710.53–0.961.010.74–1.37
 Navy/Coast Guard0.670.57–0.790.740.62–0.89
 Functional support1.001.001.00
 Combat specialist0.800.66–0.961.090.90–1.320.780.26–2.35
 Health care specialist0.600.48–0.760.660.52–0.850.500.16–1.55
 Service support1.190.97–1.441.110.91–1.361.520.56–4.12
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 Normal/Underweight (<25)
 Overweight (25 to <30)1.341.16–1.541.110.95–1.290.770.38–1.56
 Obese (≥30)2.412.07–2.801.411.20–1.671.200.49–2.91
Smoking status
 Past smoker1.391.22–1.581.130.99–1.301.630.84–3.14
 Current smoker1.541.33–1.801.191.02–1.400.560.20–1.56
Alcohol misuse**
Mental component score
 >75th percentile1.001.001.00
 >50th to 75th percentile0.730.62–0.850.890.75–1.060.720.35–1.48
 >25th to 50th percentile0.870.75––1.230.730.36–1.49
 0 to 25th percentile1.671.46–1.921.641.42–1.910.850.42–1.70
Physical component score
 >75th percentile1.001.001.00
 >50th to 75th percentile1.401.05–1.861.381.02–1.881.340.37–4.83
 >25th to 50th percentile2.992.30–3.902.722.06–3.612.560.78–8.35
 0 to 25th percentile12.259.60–15.639.036.95–11.747.892.48–25.10
Chemical/biological warfare agents
 Yes, 1 or more times0.980.85–1.121.471.22–1.781.430.49–4.18
Hazards requiring personal protective equipment
 Do not know1.591.17–2.18
Routine skin contact with paint, solvents, substances
 Do not know1.741.38–2.19
Microwaves (excluding microwave ovens)
 Do not know1.631.38–1.921.251.05–1.501.580.60–4.16
Pesticides (creams, sprays, uniform treatments)
 Do not know1.361.13–1.64
Pesticides (environment, living facilities)
 Do not know1.221.04–1.45
Time (years)1.441.40–1.481.311.27–1.351.190.99–1.44

AOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio.
*Final model established by removing nonsignificant, nonconfounding covariates from the full model.
Confirmed cases model is among active-duty, nonseparated participants. There were not enough confirmed cases for service branch to be tested in the model.
Adjusted odds ratios and associated 95% confidence intervals are adjusted for all other variables in the table.
§Deployed in support of the operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Indicates reference category.
#Self-report of personally witnessing or being exposed to a person’s death due to war or disaster, physical abuse, dead and/or decomposing bodies, maimed soldiers or civilians, prisoners of war, or refugees.
**Alcohol misuse is defined as at least 1 positive response to the CAGE questions (i.e., cutting down, annoyance by criticism, guilty feeling, and eye-openers) [32, 33].

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