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Autoimmune Diseases
Volume 2012, Article ID 404815, 6 pages
Research Article

Significant Changes in the Levels of Secreted Cytokines in Brains of Experimental Antiphospholipid Syndrome Mice

1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv, Israel
2Department of Neurology and Joseph Sagol Neuroscience Center, Sheba Medical Center, 52621 Ramat Gan, Israel
3Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv, Israel

Received 3 October 2011; Accepted 28 November 2011

Academic Editor: Jozélio Freire de Carvalho

Copyright © 2012 Assaf Menachem et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by thromboses and neuropsychiatric manifestations possibly linked to brain inflammation. In order to examine the levels of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in experimental APS (eAPS) mice brains, we measured the levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-10 in brain homogenates (cytosolic fractions) and in brain slices (secreted level) at 6, 15, and 24 weeks after immunization. We induced eAPS by immunization of Balb/c mice with β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI), the major autoantigen in the disease and controls with adjuvant alone. We found increased levels of secreted TNF-α in eAPS mice for the entire experiment period. Cytosolic and secreted IL-10 and IFN-γ levels in eAPS mice were lower at 6 and 15 weeks and higher at 24 weeks after immunization. The results suggest that brain disease in APS is associated with significant and complex changes in proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines.