Table 1: Laryngeal manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis.

Laryngotracheal symptomsLaryngeal findingsHigh-resolution computerized tomographic findings

(1) Phonatory symptoms
 (a) Hoarseness
 (b) Breathiness
 (c) Vocal fatigue
 (d) Inability to project the voice
 (e) Complete aphonia
(2) Pharyngeal symptoms
 (a) Dysphagia
 (b) Odynophagia
 (c) Sore throat
 (d) Foreign body sensation
 (e) Globus pharyngeus
(3) Airway symptoms
 (a) Shortness of breath
 (b) Decrease exercise tolerance
 (c) Stridor
 (d) Dyspnea
 (e) Respiratory distress
(1) Edema
(2) Hyperemia
(3) Myositis
(4) Impaired mobility of the vocal fold
(5) Fixed vocal cords
(6) Epiglottitis
(7) Rheumatic nodules
(8) Bamboo nodes
(1) Cricoarytenoid prominence
(2) Density changes in CAJ and/or CTJ
(3) Volume changes in CAJ and/or CTJ
(4) Soft tissue changes in CAJ or CTJ
(5) Erosion of the CAJ or CTJ
(6) Ankylosis of the CAJ or CTJ

CAJ: cricoarytenoid joint. CTJ: cricothyroid joint.