Autoimmune Diseases / 2013 / Article / Fig 1

Review Article

An Update in the Use of Antibodies to Treat Glioblastoma Multiforme

Figure 1

Antibodies used in gliomas treatment. Inhibition of tyrosine kinase downstream pathways signaling modulated by monoclonal antibodies to EGFR, VEGFR, PDGFR, and c-kit. Cdc42: cell division control protein 42, ERK: extracellular signal-regulated kinase, mTOR: mammalian target of rapamycin, PI3K: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, EGF(R): epidermal growth factor (receptor), Grb2: growth factor receptor-bound protein 2, JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase, MEK/MKK: mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases, PDGF(R): platelet derived growth factor (receptor), SOS: son of sevenless, TAK: TGFβ-activated kinase, TGF: transforming growth factor, and VEGF(R): vascular endothelial growth factor (receptor). Adapted and modified from Giamas et al. [30].

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly and safely as possible. Any author submitting a COVID-19 paper should notify us at to ensure their research is fast-tracked and made available on a preprint server as soon as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted articles related to COVID-19.