Autoimmune Diseases / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

An Update in the Use of Antibodies to Treat Glioblastoma Multiforme

Table 1

Classification of clinically used toxins based on their mechanism of action.

Classification of toxins
ToxinsSourceMechanismStructureModificationsReferences

ADP ribosylating toxins
Diphtheria toxinCorynebacterium diphtheria ADP ribosylation of EF2Activity (A chain),
translocation (T), and binding (B) domains
(a) DT486
(b) DT388 or DT389 (deletion of cell-binding domain)
(c) CRM107 point (mutation in cell-binding domain of DT)
[1013]
Pseudomonas exotoxinPseudomonas aeroginosa ADP ribosylation of EF2Binding (Ia), translocation (II and Ib), and activity domains (III)(a) PE40 and PE40KDEL
(b) PE38 and PE38KDEL
(c) PE38QQR
(d) PE35
[10, 1315]

Pore-forming toxins
Cholera toxinVibrio cholera ADP ribosylation of Gs, a subunit of G proteinActivity (A chain) and cell-binding domains (pentameric B chain)CET40 (domains II and III)[13, 16, 17]

Ribosome inactivating toxins
Holotoxins-ricinRicinus communis N-glycosylation of 28S rRNAActivity and binding domains(a) Ricin
(b) Ricin A chain (RTA)
(c) bR (blocked ricin)
(d) dgA (deglycosylated
ricin A chain)
[13, 18]
Hemitoxins-saporin (SAP),
pokeweed antiviral
protein (PAP)
Saponaria officinalis, Phytolacca
americana
N-glycosylation
of 28S rRNA
Single-chain proteins
without binding domain
[13, 19]

Ribonucleases
Fungal toxins-a-sarcin, restrictocin
HPR, ECP, EDN
Aspergillus sp.  

Human
Cleavage of 28S rRNA

 Degradation of RNA
Single-chain proteins without binding domain
Single-chain proteins
[13, 19]  

[13, 20]

Some immunotoxins are presented which have been used as toxin-based therapeutic approaches in the treatment of several malignancies acting on different intracellular targets. ADP: adenosine diphosphate; EF2: elongation factor 2 during protein synthesis on the ribosome; DT: diphtheria toxin; DT388 or DT389: truncated forms of DT without the receptor-binding activity; CRM107: cross-reacting material-mutant of DT without the receptor binding; PE: Pseudomonas exotoxin A; PE40 and PE38: truncated forms of PE without the receptor-binding domain Ia; CET40: cholera exotoxin A; RTA: ricin toxin A; HPR: human pancreatic ribonuclease A; ECP: eosinophilic cationic protein; EDN: eosinophil-derived neurotoxin.

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