Autoimmune Diseases / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

An Update in the Use of Antibodies to Treat Glioblastoma Multiforme

Table 1

Classification of clinically used toxins based on their mechanism of action.

Classification of toxins

ADP ribosylating toxins
Diphtheria toxinCorynebacterium diphtheria ADP ribosylation of EF2Activity (A chain),
translocation (T), and binding (B) domains
(a) DT486
(b) DT388 or DT389 (deletion of cell-binding domain)
(c) CRM107 point (mutation in cell-binding domain of DT)
Pseudomonas exotoxinPseudomonas aeroginosa ADP ribosylation of EF2Binding (Ia), translocation (II and Ib), and activity domains (III)(a) PE40 and PE40KDEL
(b) PE38 and PE38KDEL
(c) PE38QQR
(d) PE35
[10, 1315]

Pore-forming toxins
Cholera toxinVibrio cholera ADP ribosylation of Gs, a subunit of G proteinActivity (A chain) and cell-binding domains (pentameric B chain)CET40 (domains II and III)[13, 16, 17]

Ribosome inactivating toxins
Holotoxins-ricinRicinus communis N-glycosylation of 28S rRNAActivity and binding domains(a) Ricin
(b) Ricin A chain (RTA)
(c) bR (blocked ricin)
(d) dgA (deglycosylated
ricin A chain)
[13, 18]
Hemitoxins-saporin (SAP),
pokeweed antiviral
protein (PAP)
Saponaria officinalis, Phytolacca
of 28S rRNA
Single-chain proteins
without binding domain
[13, 19]

Fungal toxins-a-sarcin, restrictocin
Aspergillus sp.  

Cleavage of 28S rRNA

 Degradation of RNA
Single-chain proteins without binding domain
Single-chain proteins
[13, 19]  

[13, 20]

Some immunotoxins are presented which have been used as toxin-based therapeutic approaches in the treatment of several malignancies acting on different intracellular targets. ADP: adenosine diphosphate; EF2: elongation factor 2 during protein synthesis on the ribosome; DT: diphtheria toxin; DT388 or DT389: truncated forms of DT without the receptor-binding activity; CRM107: cross-reacting material-mutant of DT without the receptor binding; PE: Pseudomonas exotoxin A; PE40 and PE38: truncated forms of PE without the receptor-binding domain Ia; CET40: cholera exotoxin A; RTA: ricin toxin A; HPR: human pancreatic ribonuclease A; ECP: eosinophilic cationic protein; EDN: eosinophil-derived neurotoxin.

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