Autoimmune Diseases / 2013 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

An Update in the Use of Antibodies to Treat Glioblastoma Multiforme

Table 2

Immunotoxins against gliomas.

ImmunotoxinToxin usedTarget
trial phase
Number and
type of tumor
OutcomeAdverse effectReferences

I/II31 (25 GBM and 6 AA)Median survival 8.2 months; six-month survival was 52%Headache, seizure,
weakness, dysphasia, and hydrocephalus

I/II/IIIPhase II, 51 (46 GBM, 3 AA, other 2); Phase III, 296 recurrent GBMInfusion MTIC was 0.5 μg/mL; up to 6 d well tolerated; median survival 42.7 weeks (95% CI, 35.6–55.6) for GBM in Phase II and 36.4 weeks in Phase III, comparable to Gliadel WaferHeadache,
dysphasia, seizure,
weakness, and
pulmonary embolism

TP-38PE-38TGF- Intratumoral
I20 (17 GBM, other 3)Median survival 28 weeks (95% CI, 4.1–45.1)Hemiparesis, fatigue, headache, and dysphasia[27, 28]

I/II44 (GBM, AA)Median survival 37 weeks, (95% CI, 26–49); 5/34 CR, 7/34 PR, response rate 35% (95% CI, 20–54; )Seizure, cerebral edema [29]

GBM: glioblastoma multiforme; AA: anaplastic astrocytoma; TGF: transforming growth factor; CED: convection-enhanced delivery; MTIC: maximum-tolerated infusate concentration; CI: confidence interval; Tf: transferrin; CR: complete response; PR: partial responders; RR: radiographic response.

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