Table 3: Potential targets in B lymphocytes and the therapeutic molecule for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus.

Direct B lymphocyte targeting

CD-20 antigen
(i) Rituximab (chimeric monoclonal antibody): EXPLORER and LUNAR studies did not meet primary endpoints.
(ii) Ocrelizumab (humanized monoclonal antibody): phase II prematurely stopped due to infections.
(iii) Ofatumumab (human monoclonal antibody): no studies in SLE.
(iv) Veltuzumab (humanized monoclonal antibody): no studies in SLE.
(v) TRU-015 (engineered protein).
CD-22 antigen
(i) Epratuzumab (humanized monoclonal antibody anti-CD22): phase III study ongoing.

Indirect B lymphocyte targeting

BAFF
(i) Belimumab (LimphoStat B: fully human monoclonal antibody anti-BAFF): FDA approved based on BLISS 52/BLISS 76 phase III studies.
BAFF receptors
(i) Anti-BR3.
(ii) Atacicept (fusion IgG with the extracellular domain of TACI receptor): study in progress.
(iii) Briobacept/BR3-Fc (fusion IgG with the extracellular domain of BAFF receptor—BR3).

BAFF: B lymphocyte Activator Factor belonging to the TNF family; TACI: transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophylin ligand interactor.