Table 1: Description of mineral fibers discussed.

Fiber familyFiber namesChemistryLocation/use

SerpentineChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4 (idealized), rolled sheets of Si oxide tetrahedraMany commercial uses [7], Sumas Mtn [30]

AmphiboleActinolite
Amosite
Anthophyllite
Crocidolite
Tremolite
Various Mg, Fe, Ca, and Na ions on double chains of silicon oxide tetrahedraIgneous and metamorphic rock, many commercial uses [7, 31, 32]

AsbestiformWinchite
Richterite
Similar to amphibole, not specifically classified as asbestosSimilar to amphiboles, contaminant [8, 31]

NanomaterialsNanotubes
Nanowires
Many metal formulations, formed into very long, thin chains or tubesSynthetic, many commercial uses [13, 14]

ZeoliteErionite(Na2,K2,Ca)2Al4Si14O36·15H2O
(idealized), chains of silicate “cages” or rings
Igneous rock: Turkey [11, 12]; S. Dakota [11, 12]