Table 2: Selected studies evaluating antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and rheumatoid factor (RF) among asbestos exposed subjects.

Study, year [reference]Exposure context, fiber type Exposed groupComparison groupAssociated w/radiologic changes
ANA+RF+ ANA+RF+

Pernis et al. 1965 [18]Insulation workers,
chrysotile
31525%10314%

Turner Warwick and Parkes 1970 [23]Medical screening,
mixed
8028%27%Yes

Turner Warwick 1973 [33]Medical screening,
mixed
19620%11.7%Yes

Turner Warwick 1973 [33]Factory workers,
unknown
2527.5%5.3%Yes

Turner Warwick 1973 [33]Naval personnel,
mixed
3348.4%3.6%Yes

Lange 1980 [29]Textile workers,
unknown
5821%190%Yes

Toivanen et al. 1976 [34]Asb. miners,
anthophyllite
661.5%10.7%

Kagan et al. 1977 [35]Subjects with asbestosis267.7%35%450%11%

Haslam et al. 1978 [36]Subjects with asbestosis2835.7%17.9%Yes

Huuskonen et al. 1978 [25]Varied: asbestos sprayers, insulators, cement, quarry16911.8%22.5%50411%No

Lange 1980 [29]Asbestos textile workers24221%10%1819%Yes

de Shazo et al. 1983 [26]Asbestos cement workers310%0%510%No

Doll et al. 1983 [37]Asbestos cement workers14415%3%No

Lange 1980 [29]Asbestos workers3950%90%

Zerva et al. 1989 [24]Whitewash,
tremolite (amphibole)
10914%3434%Yes
(pleural)

Tamura et al. 1993,
Tamura et al. 1996 [22, 38]
Asbestos plant workers22015%3.2%Yes
(interstitial)

Nigam et al. 1993 [19]Asbestos factory milling 7112%1.4%287%0%

Pfau et al. 2005 [20]Contaminated vermiculite
Amphiboles
7070%33%5040%36%Yes