Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Autoimmune Diseases
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 793024, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/793024
Review Article

An Update in Guillain-Barré Syndrome

Queen Elizabeth Hospital, B15 2TH Birmingham, UK

Received 9 October 2013; Accepted 21 October 2013; Published 6 January 2014

Academic Editor: Cristoforo Comi

Copyright © 2014 J. B. Winer. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. Guillain, J. Barré, and A. Strohl, “Sur un syndrome de radiculo-nevrite avec hyperalbuminose du liquide cephalorachidien sans reaction cellulaire. Remarques sur les characteres clinique et graphique des reflexes tendinaux,” Bulletins et Memories de la Societe Medicale des Hopitaux de Paris, vol. 40, pp. 1462–1470, 1916. View at Google Scholar
  2. W. K. J. Haymaker, “The Landry-Guillain-Barré syndrome: a clinicopathologicic report of fifty fatal cases and a critique of the literature,” Medicine, vol. 28, pp. 59–141, 1949. View at Google Scholar
  3. J. W. Griffin, C. Y. Li, T. W. Ho et al., “Guillain-Barré syndrome in northern China. The spectrum of neuropathological changes in clinically defined cases,” Brain, vol. 118, no. 3, pp. 577–595, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. McGrogan, G. C. Madle, H. E. Seaman, and C. S. De Vries, “The epidemiology of Guillain-Barré syndrome worldwide: a systematic literature review,” Neuroepidemiology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 150–163, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. J. Sejvar, A. L. Baughman, M. Wise, and O. W. Morgan, “Population incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Neuroepidemiology, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 123–133, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. N. D. Lawn, D. D. Fletcher, R. D. Henderson, T. D. Wolter, and E. F. M. Wijdicks, “Anticipating mechanical ventilation in Guillain-Barré syndrome,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 893–898, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. C. Reid and I. T. Draper, “Pathogenesis of papilloedema and raised intracranial pressure in Guillain-Barré syndrome,” British Medical Journal, vol. 281, no. 6252, pp. 1393–1394, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. B. M. Colls, “Guillain-Barré syndrome and hyponatraemia,” Internal Medicine Journal, vol. 34, no. 4, p. 218, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. N. Souayah, A. Nasar, M. F. K. Suri, and A. I. Qureshi, “National trends in hospital outcomes among patients with Guillain-é syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation,” Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 24–28, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. B. Winer, R. A. C. Hughes, and C. Osmond, “A prospective study of acute idiopathic neuropathy. I. Clinical features and their prognostic value,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 605–612, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. Bardage, I. Persson, A. Ortqvist, U. Bergman, J. F. Ludvigsson, and F. Granath, “Neurological and autoimmune disorders after vaccination against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) with a monovalent adjuvanted vaccine: population based cohort study in Stockholm, Sweden,” BMJ, vol. 343, p. d5956, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. A. Goddard, A. J. Lastovica, and A. C. Argent, “Campylobacter 0:41 isolation in Guillain-Barré syndrome,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 76, no. 6, pp. 526–528, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. F. Cresswell, J. Eadie, N. Longley, and D. Macallan, “Severe Guillain-Barré syndrome following primary infection with varicella zoster virus in an adult,” International Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. e161–e163, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. K. Asbury, B. G. Arnason, and R. D. Adams, “The inflammatory lesion in idiopathic polyneuritis. Its role in pathogenesis,” Medicine, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 173–215, 1969. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. W. Prineas, “Acute idiopathic polyneuritis. An electron microscope study,” Laboratory Investigation, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 133–147, 1972. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. W. Griffin, C. Y. Li, C. Macko et al., “Early nodal changes in the acute motor axonal neuropathy pattern of the Guillain-Barré syndrome,” Journal of Neurocytology, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 33–51, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. W. Griffin, C. Y. Li, T. W. Ho et al., “Pathology of the motor-sensory axonal guillain-barré syndrome,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 17–28, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. C. Melnick, “Thirty-eight cases of the Guillain-Barré syndrome: an immunological study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 1, no. 5327, pp. 368–373, 1963. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. C. L. Koski, R. Humphrey, and M. L. Shin, “Anti-peripheral myelin antibody in patients with demyelinating neuropathy: quantitative and kinetic determination of serum antibody by complement component 1 fixation,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 905–909, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. Saida, K. Saida, D. H. Silberberg, and M. J. Brown, “Experimental allergic neuritis induced by galactocerebroside,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 9, pp. 87–101, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. H.-P. Hartung, B. Schafer, W. Fierz, K. Heininger, and K. V. Toyka, “Ciclosporin A prevents P2 T cell line-mediated experimental autoimmune neuritis (AT-EAN) in rat,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 83, no. 1-2, pp. 195–200, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Zhu, S.-H. Pelidou, G. Deretzi et al., “P0 glycoprotein peptides 56–71 and 180–199 dose-dependently induce acute and chronic experimental autoimmune neuritis in Lewis rats associated with epitope spreading,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 114, no. 1, pp. 90–106, 2001, [erratum appears in Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 119, no. 1, p. 150, 2001]. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. R. A. C. Hughes, I. A. Gray, and N. A. Gregson, “Immune responses to myelin antigens in Guillain-Barré syndrome,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 303–312, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. H. Quarles, A. A. Ilyas, and H. J. Willison, “Antibodies to glycolipids in demyelinating diseases of the human peripheral nervous system,” Chemistry and Physics of Lipids, vol. 42, no. 1–3, pp. 235–248, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Chiba, S. Kusunoki, T. Shimizu, and I. Kanazawa, “Serum IgG antibody to ganglioside GQ1b is a possible marker of Miller Fisher syndrome,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 677–679, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. H. J. Willison, J. Veitch, G. Paterson, and P. G. E. Kennedy, “Miller Fisher syndrome is associated with serum antibodies to GQ1b ganglioside,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 204–206, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Odaka, N. Yuki, and K. Hirata, “Anti-GQ1b IgG antibody syndrome: clinical and immunological range,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 50–55, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Odaka, N. Yuki, M. Yamada et al., “Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis: clinical features of 62 cases and a subgroup associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome,” Brain, vol. 126, no. 10, pp. 2279–2290, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. M. O'Hanlon, J. J. Plomp, M. Chakrabarti et al., “Anti-GQ1b ganglioside antibodies mediate complement-dependent destruction of the motor nerve terminal,” Brain, vol. 124, no. 5, pp. 893–906, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. W. Ho, H. J. Willison, I. Nachamkin et al., “Anti-GD1a antibody is associated with axonal but not demyelinating forms of Guillain-Barré syndrome,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 45, pp. 168–173, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  31. N. Yuki, M. Yamada, M. Koga et al., “Animal model of axonal Guillain-Barré syndrome induced by sensitization with GM1 ganglioside,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 712–720, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. V. Govoni, E. Granieri, M. R. Tola et al., “Exogenous gangliosides and Guillain-Barré syndrome. An observational study in the Local Health District of Ferrara, Italy,” Brain, vol. 120, no. 7, pp. 1123–1130, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. H. J. Willison and C. S. Goodyear, “Glycolipid antigens and autoantibodies in autoimmune neuropathies,” Trends in Immunology, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 453–459, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. K. Kaida and S. Kusunoki, “Antibodies to gangliosides and ganglioside complexes in Guillain-Barré syndrome and Fisher syndrome: mini-review,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 223, no. 1-2, pp. 5–12, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. Kusunoki, K.-I. Kaida, and M. Ueda, “Antibodies against gangliosides and ganglioside complexes in Guillain-Barré syndrome: new aspects of research,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1780, no. 3, pp. 441–444, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. W. Hu, A. Janke, S. Ortler et al., “Expression of CD28-related costimulatory molecule and its ligand in inflammatory neuropathies,” Neurology, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 277–282, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. L.-J. Chi, H.-B. Wang, Y. Zhang, and W.-Z. Wang, “Abnormality of circulating CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 192, no. 1-2, pp. 206–214, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. K. Nyati, K. N. Prasad, A. Verma, and V. K. Paliwal, “Correlation of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 with proinflammatory cytokines in Guillain-Barré syndrome,” Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 88, no. 16, pp. 3540–3546, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. Ben-Smith, J. S. H. Gaston, P. C. Barber, and J. B. Winer, “Isolation and characterisation of T lymphocytes from sural nerve biopsies in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 362–368, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. Khalili-Shiraz, N. Gregson, and R. Hughes, “CD 1 expression in human peripheral nerve of GBS patients,” Biochemical Society Transactions, vol. 25, no. 2, p. 172, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. L. Kuijf, K. Geleijns, N. Ennaji, W. van Rijs, P. A. van Doorn, and B. C. Jacobs, “Susceptibility to Guillain-Barré syndrome is not associated with CD1A and CD1E gene polymorphisms,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 205, no. 1-2, pp. 110–112, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. Chiba, S. Kusunoki, H. Obata, R. Machinami, and I. Kanazawa, “Ganglioside composition of the human cranial nerves, with special reference to pathophysiology of Miller Fisher syndrome,” Brain Research, vol. 745, no. 1-2, pp. 32–36, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. Y. Gong, Y. Tagawa, M. P. T. Lunn et al., “Localization of major gangliosides in the PNS: implications for immune neuropathies,” Brain, vol. 125, no. 11, pp. 2491–2506, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. C. W. Ang, H. P. Endtz, B. C. Jacobs et al., “Campylobacter jejuni lipopolysaccharides from Guillain-Barré syndrome patients induce IgG anti-GM1 antibodies in rabbits,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 104, no. 2, pp. 133–138, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. K. A. Sheikh, I. Nachamkin, T. W. Ho et al., “Campylobacter jejuni lipopolysaccharides in Guillain-Barré syndrome: molecular mimicry and host susceptibility,” Neurology, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 371–378, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. N. Yuki, “Molecular mimicry between gangliosides and lipopolysaccharides of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and Miller Fisher syndrome,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 176, no. 6, pp. S150–S153, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. Mori, S. Kuwabara, M. Miyake et al., “Haemophilus influenzae has a GM1 ganglioside-like structure and elicits Guillain-Barré syndrome,” Neurology, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1282–1284, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. Khalili-Shirazi, N. Gregson, I. Gray, J. Rees, J. Winer, and R. Hughes, “Antiganglioside antibodies in Guillain-Barré syndrome after a recent cytomegalovirus infection,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 376–379, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. M. Spies, J. D. Pollard, J. G. Bonner, K. W. Westland, and J. G. McLeod, “Synergy between antibody and P2-reactive T cells in experimental allergic neuritis,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 57, no. 1-2, pp. 77–84, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. K. W. Westland, J. D. Pollard, S. Sander, J. G. Bonner, C. Linington, and J. G. McLeod, “Activated non-neural specific T cells open the blood-brain barrier to circulating antibodies,” Brain, vol. 122, no. 7, pp. 1283–1291, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. A. Créange, T. Sharshar, T. Planchenault et al., “Matrix metalloproteinase-9 is increased and correlates with severity in Guillain-Barré syndrome,” Neurology, vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 1683–1691, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. Koga, M. Gilbert, J. Li et al., “Antecedent infections in Fisher syndrome: a common pathogenesis of molecular mimicry,” Neurology, vol. 64, no. 9, pp. 1605–1611, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. N. Yuki, T. Taki, M. Takahashi et al., “Penner's serotype 4 of Campylobacter jejuni has a lipopolysaccharide that bears a GM1 ganglioside epitope as well as one that bears a GD1a epitope,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 2101–2103, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. B. Winer, D. Briggs, K. Welsh, and R. A. C. Hughes, “HLA antigens in the Guillain-Barré syndrome,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 13–16, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. H. Rees, R. W. Vaugham, E. Kondeatis, and R. A. C. Hughes, “HLA-class II alleles in Guillain-Barré syndrome and miller fisher syndrome and their association with preceding Campylobacter jejuni infection,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 53–57, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. G. A. MacGregor, “Familial Guillain-Barré syndrome,” The Lancet, vol. 2, no. 7425, p. 1296, 1965. View at Google Scholar
  57. M. Saunders and M. Rake, “Familial Guillain-Barré syndrome,” The Lancet, vol. 286, no. 7422, pp. 1106–1107, 1965. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. J. K. Ng, J. Malotka, N. Kawakami et al., “Neurofascin as a target for autoantibodies in peripheral neuropathies,” Neurology, vol. 79, pp. 2241–2248, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  59. D. R. Cornblath, “Electrophysiology in Guillain-Barré syndrome,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 27, pp. S17–S20, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. R. D. M. Hadden, D. R. Cornblath, R. A. C. Hughes et al., “Electrophysiological classification of Guillain-Barré syndrome: clinical associations and outcome,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 780–788, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. R. A. Hughes, J. C. Raphaël, A. V. Swan, and P. A. van Doorn, “Intravenous immunoglobulin for Guillain-Barré syndrome,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 1, Article ID CD002063, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. J. C. Raphaël, S. Chevret, R. A. Hughes, and D. Annane, “Plasma exchange for Guillain-Barré syndrome,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 2, Article ID CD001798, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. K. Kuitwaard, J. De Gelder, A. P. Tio-Gillen et al., “Pharmacokinetics of intravenous immunoglobulin and outcome in Guillain-Barré syndrome,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 597–603, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. Anonymous, “Randomised trial of plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin, and combined treatments in Guillain-Barré syndrome,” The Lancet, vol. 349, no. 9047, pp. 225–230, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. S. K. Halstead, P. D. Humphreys, F. M. P. Zitman, J. Hamer, J. J. Plomp, and H. J. Willison, “C5 inhibitor rEV576 protects against neural injury in an in vitro mouse model of Miller Fisher syndrome,” Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 228–235, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. A. M. Fitzpatrick, C. A. Mann, S. Barry, K. Brennan, J. R. Overell, and H. J. Willison, “An open label clinical trial of complement inhibition in multifocal motor neuropathy,” Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 84–91, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus