Fertility Status of Acid Soils under Different Land Use Types in Wolaita Zone, Southern EthiopiaRead the full article
Applied and Environmental Soil Science publishes research in the field of soil science. Its focus reflects the multidisciplinary nature of soil science, especially the dynamics and spatial heterogeneity of processes in soil.
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Silicon and Aluminum Mobility in Soils of Jeju Island, Korea
The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of released silicon (Si) and aluminum (Al) during the formation of volcanic ash soil on the content of Si in groundwater on Jeju Island. Volcanic ash soils in Jeju Island were formed from pyroclastic materials that originated from basalt. We sampled four profiles, including basaltic bedrock of each soil series with large variations in elevation (160–320 m) and mean annual precipitation (MAP; 1,800–2,600 mm). The soil and bedrock minerals were analyzed for weathering of volcanic ash soils related to mineralogical transformations and mobility of Si and Al. Andisols (above 2,000 mm MAP) were dominantly composed of allophane and gibbsite. In Andisols used in the study, 10–70% of Si was lost, whereas the amount of Al was relatively conserved. This is because Al forms Al-humus complex and Andisols contain allophane. In contrast, non-Andisols located at low altitude with lower than 1,800 mm MAP were enriched with considerable amounts of Si and Al, because non-Andisols have crystalline clay minerals and quartz. These results indicate that Andisols, which are widely distributed in Jeju Island, may play an important role in contributing to the high concentration of dissolved Si in the groundwater.
Trace Element Status and Environmental Implications of Soils and Zea mays from Farmed Dumpsites in the Bamenda Metropolis, North-West Cameroon
This study assessed some physicochemical and trace element properties of soils and Zea mays from farmed dumpsites in the Bamenda metropolis, North-West Cameroon. The growth in population and metal workshops in Bamenda has resulted in the dumping of large quantities of wastes on agricultural soils. Thus, the fear of these agricultural soils and crops being contaminated by waste dumped on them is a call for concern because most of the populations rely on agriculture for survival. A soil and Zea mays sample each was collected from three farmed dumpsites (Nkwen, Mankon, and Bamendakwe) in the Bamenda metropolis and analyzed for physicochemical and trace element properties using standard procedures. The results of physicochemical analysis revealed that the soils had pH values ranging from 5.63 to 7.49, average organic matter, low total nitrogen, high C/N ratio, and high CEC, and the soil textural class was clay loam for soils of Nkwen and sandy loam for soils of Mankon and Bamendakwe. The content of bases in Zea mays was high compared to those in the soil. The concentration of Fe (14635.6 µg/g) in soils of Bamendakwe and Cu (157.17 µg/g) and Zn (1438.36 µg/g) in soils of Mankon had values which were above the permissible limit. The concentration of Zn (114.48 µg/g) in the plant sample of Mankon together with the concentration of Fe in all three plant samples had values above permissible limits. Natural origins and domestic waste were identified as the major sources of trace metals in the soils. Thus, there are potential health hazards related to consuming crops from such soils. Bioremediation techniques can be used to recover heavy metals from such soils. Furthermore, the mobilization of nutrient ions and immobilization of heavy metals by induced liming could be important in sustainable agricultural production and soil environmental protection of the soils studied.
Effect of the Wildfires on Sandy Podzol Soils of Nadym Region, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District, Russia
Active land disturbance of soil and environments appears even in remote landscapes of tundra and forest tundra. Wildfires become a frequent factor of soil degradation and intensification of permafrost degradation, also affecting the global balance of carbon, especially content and distribution of polycyclic aromatic compounds. Mature unaffected by fire sandy-textured podzols soils were investigated in comparison with the same soil strongly affected by surface fire in the end of August 2016 in surroundings of the Pangody settlement, Nadym district, Yamal region. Data obtained showed an intensive morphological transformation of the topsoil layers, decreasing total organic matter and apparently increasing the humus enrichment by nitrogen. Wildfires also result in complete transformation of the fractional composition of the polycyclic aromatic compounds. The sum of PAHs increases intensively as well as benzo(a)pyrene content in soils. Therefore, soils of the cryolithozone become more faced to the wildfires during the last decades. Even one-time fire effect results in serious transformation of soil geochemical state.
Soil Heavy Metal Distribution with Depth around a Closed Landfill and Their Uptake by Datura stramonium
Landfills are major sources of environmental pollution. This study evaluated heavy metal concentrations in soils and plants around the closed Lumberstewart landfill in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, to determine the pollution potential of a closed landfill and the risks they present to plants growing in this environment and surrounding communities. Soil samples were collected at depths of 0–30 cm, 30–60 cm, and 60–90 cm around the landfill and at a control site and characterized for various properties and concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zn. Samples of Datura stramonium, collected from the same sites where soil samples were collected, were also analyzed for the same heavy metals. The soils were sandy, mostly acidic (5.01 < pH < 7.65) with low organic matter content (<2%) and cation exchange capacity (<15 meq/100 g). These properties varied with depth around the landfill. Heavy metals concentrations in the soils and Datura stramonium followed the order Fe > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Cd with samples from around the landfill having higher concentrations than samples from the control site. Soil heavy metal enrichment was highest at a depth of 30–60 cm. Pollution load index (PLI) values indicated that all sites around the landfill were polluted (PLI > 1). Heavy metal transfer coefficient in Datura stramonium ranged between 0.0 and 209 with <60% of the variation observed in heavy metal transfer coefficient in Datura stramonium explained by the extent of heavy metal enrichment in the soils. More than 20 years after closure of the landfill, there are indications that leachate migration may still be going on around the landfill. Monitoring of environments around closed landfills needs to be ongoing to mitigate negative impacts on humans and the environment.
Variation of Selected Physicochemical and Hydrological Properties of Soils in Different Tropical Land Use Systems of Nepal
Different land use systems can have different soil properties. It is important to study the soil properties for wise use and sustainable management of land resources. This article reports the findings of a research conducted in Makwanpur district of Nepal, to determine and compare the selected physicochemical and hydrological properties of soil in forest, rainfed agriculture land, and grassland. These forest, agriculture land, and grassland represent tropical land use systems. Soil samples were collected from 0 to 30 cm depths of soil profile from nine randomly distributed pits dug in forest, grassland, and rainfed agriculture land in 2019. Soil samples were analyzed in the laboratory to determine the soil properties using standard methods. Bulk density, porosity, moisture content and infiltration, pH, total nitrogen, available potassium, and available phosphorus were quantified from the soils samples. It was found that the highest BD was found in the grassland (1.29 g/cm³) followed by the forest (1.23 g/cm³) and rainfed agriculture land (1.18 g/cm³). The highest porosity was found in rainfed agriculture land (55.50%) followed by the forest (53.74%) and grassland (51.63%). The highest MC was found in the grassland (26.94%) followed by the forest (10.17%) and rainfed agriculture land (9.92%). The mean cumulative infiltration amount was highest in the rainfed agriculture land (39.27 cm) followed by the forest (33.47 cm) and grassland (8.4 cm). The highest soil pH was found in the grassland (7.91) and the lowest pH (5.70) in the forest. The highest level of total nitrogen was found in rainfed agriculture land (0.121%), followed by the forest (0.106%) and grassland (0.096%). The highest level of available phosphorous was found in rainfed agriculture land (84.94 ppm), followed by the forest (67.76 ppm) and grassland (6.69). The highest level of available potassium was found in rainfed agriculture land (154.24 ppm), followed by the forest (84.49 ppm) and the grassland (44.71 ppm). Bulk density, porosity, and total nitrogen were not found to be significantly different and other soil properties were found to be significantly different between different land use systems. The contribution of farmers in maintaining soil properties on the farmlands is clearly reflected in the results, so their knowledge on soil management needs to be explored and adapted for wise use and sustainable management of other land use systems.
Effects of Organic Nutrient Sources and NPS Fertilizer on the Agronomic and Economic Performance of Haricot Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Southern Ethiopia
Despite the fact that mineral fertilizers are widely considered as a major option for addressing the crisis of nutrient depletion, their use among smallholder farmers is not adequate due to an escalating cost. Alternatively, nutrient-rich organic sources that are easily available to farmers are not widely promoted. Thus, this study was carried out in the research field of Wolaita Sodo University, Southern Ethiopia, to evaluate the effects of locally available organic nutrient sources and nitrogen (N) phosphorus (P) sulfur (S) fertilizer (19N-46P2O5-7S) on the productivity and economic performance of common bean. The organic materials used were Croton (Croton macrostachyus) and Erythrina (Erythrina brucei) at 2 : 1 ratio, respectively. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments for organic fertilizer (OF) were 0, 2.5, and 5 t·ha−1 and for NPS fertilizer were 0, 50, 100, and 150 kg·ha−1. Chemical composition analysis of organic materials showed high nutrient content where the amount varied from 4.7%–5.2% N, 11.07–18.6 mg/kg P, and 2.12%–3.07% K. Results on agronomic parameters revealed that the leaf area index, grain weight, number of pods per plant, dry matter per plant, and grain yield of haricot bean were significantly affected by both main and combined effects of NPS and OF fertilizers. The grain yield under integrated application of 150 kg NPS/ha and 2.5 t·OF/ha (4.16 t/ha) was significantly higher than that obtained from unfertilized crop (1.01 t/ha) by 312%. Additionally, it resulted in 34%, 31%, and 79% yield increment over the blanket dose (100 kg·NPS·ha−1), 2.5 t/ha and 5 t/ha, respectively. It was also noted that resource-poor farmers, compared to unfertilized crop, can get grain yield superior by 130% and 214% using sole OF at 2.5 and 5 t·ha−1, respectively. Furthermore, the highest economic benefit (27, 179.5EtB) was recorded from 150 kg NPS/ha + 2.5 t·OF/ha. The finding suggested that locally available organic materials of plant origin alone/integrated with NPS fertilizer are helpful for increased yield of haricot bean.