Applied and Environmental Soil Science / 2011 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

The Importance of Endospore-Forming Bacteria Originating from Soil for Contamination of Industrial Food Processing

Table 2

Recent data on presence of B. cereus, C. tyrobutyricum, or butyric acid spores, C. botulinum, C. perfringens, C. estertheticum, or C. gasigenes in soil, agricultural samples, or raw milk.

Main sample categorySpecific microorganism(s) (if indicated)Sample typeNumber of samplesTotal aerobic or anaerobicSpecific spore prevalence and countReference
(if further indicated)spore count (log cfu/g or mL)(log cfu/g or mL, unless otherwise indicated)
Averagea or mediancRangebPrevalence (%)Averagea or mediancRangeb

SoilB. cereusFarm soil38i–14h4.9a,i–5.0a,h4.1i–6.0i[9]
Butyric acid sporesFarm soil59j4.2a,j3.2–4.9j [10]
C. botulinumApiary soil235312.0/kga1.7–3.0/kg [11]
Botulinum-toxin-Virgin soilk66116.3 [12]
producing clostridiaNonvirgin soill134827.0
C. perfringensSoil various sources50275.10–3.5 [13]
C. estertheticumSoil around abattoir2.1m–14.6n [14]
C. gasigenesSoil around abattoir10.4m,n
Anaerobic sporesFarm soil4.0c2.0–5.2 [15]

FeedB. cereusSilage66g–19h2.2a,g–2.8a,k<1.0g–3.7h[9]
Butyric acid sporesMixed silage122j4.2a,j<1.5j–6.0j [10]
Anaerobic sporesGrass silage<2.0c<2.0–6.89d [15]
Anaerobic sporesMaize silage4.45c<2.0–4.69[15]

Cows’ faecesAerobic spores4.7b,e–6.2b,f[16]
B. cereus66g–14h2.0a,g–2.5a,h1.0g–3.8h [9]
Butyric acid spores141j4.7a,j<1.5j–7.0j [10]

BeddingB. cereusUsed bedding66g–38i2.7a,g–3.1a,i1.0g–4.0i[9]
B. cereusUsed deep-straw bedding46.4a[17]
B. cereusUsed sand bedding22.3a[17]
B. cereusUsed sawdust bedding44.3a[17]
B. cereusUsed straw bedding43.9a[17]
Butyric acid sporesBedding material113j4.5a,j<1.5j–6.0j[10]

Raw milkAerobic sporesRaw bulk tank milk183.74a[18]
B. cereus66g–38i1.0a,g–1.5a,i/litre<1.0g–2.9i/litre [9]
Butyric acid sporesFarm tank milk142j2.7a,j/litre<1.5j–4.2j/litre [10]

aaverage concentration as indicated in table; bminimum and maximum value; cmedian concentration as indicated in table; dextreme value; eprior to feedlotting; fat day 76 of feedlotting; gsamples analysed for B. cereus count for cows housed in barn all day in housing period (November–April); hsamples analysed for B. cereus count for cows at pasture 24 h per day during grazing period (May to October); isamples analysed for B. cereus count for cows at pasture during daytime during grazing period (May to October); jsamples collected between January and December on 24 farms; ksoils not changed by people; lsoils changed by people (cultivated, urbanized, industrialized); mculture based detection; nDNA based detection.