Figure 1: (a) was taken in the Virginia Range of northern Nevada, USA. These high elevation communities are dominated by the low sagebrush species Artemisia arbuscula due to the clay-textured soils. The trees are Juniperus occidentalis that are greatly expanding their range. The grass in the foreground is the native perennial bunchgrass Psuedoreogneria spicata, which effectively suppresses growth of Bromus tectorum. The vegetation in the background is dominated by B. tectorum, which we suspect is due to loss of P. spicata. (b) shows a rhizotron used in the greenhouse experiment with the back removed to observe rooting patterns. Photograph was taken near the completion of the 3rd growth cycle (addition of activated carbon) and shows the perennial grass A. hymenoides with a small plant of B. tectorum between.