Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Applied and Environmental Soil Science
Volume 2014, Article ID 167971, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/167971
Research Article

Leaching of Chromium, Copper, and Arsenic from CCA-Treated Utility Poles

1Department of Civil Engineering, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL, Canada A1B 3X5
2Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
3Nalcor Energy, Lower Churchill Project, St. John’s, NL, Canada A1B 0C9
4Science Branch, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, St. John’s, NL, Canada A1C 5X1

Received 29 August 2014; Revised 25 November 2014; Accepted 26 November 2014; Published 18 December 2014

Academic Editor: Teodoro M. Miano

Copyright © 2014 Cynthia A. Coles et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Naidoo, A. Africa, and M. A. Dalvie, “Exposure to CCA-treated wood amongst food caterers and residents in informal areas of Cape Town,” South African Journal of Science, vol. 109, no. 7-8, pp. 1–7, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. S. Nico, S. E. Fendorf, Y. W. Lowney, S. E. Holm, and M. V. Ruby, “Chemical structure of arsenic and chromium in CCA-treated wood: Implications of environmental weathering,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 38, no. 19, pp. 5253–5260, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. W. C. Lee, G. Chen, and F. H. Tainter, “Comparative treatability of Moso bamboo and Southern pine with CCA preservative using a commercial schedule,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 87–88, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. R. Hasan, L. Hu, H. M. Solo-Gabriele, L. Fieber, Y. Cai, and T. G. Townsend, “Field-scale leaching of arsenic, chromium and copper from weathered treated wood,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 158, no. 5, pp. 1479–1486, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. United States Environmental Protection Agency, “Pesticides: Regulating Pesticides,” 2011, http://www.epa.gov/oppad001/reregistration/cca.
  6. G. Zagury, R. Samson, and L. Deschênes, “Occurrence of metals in soil and ground water near chromated copper arsenate-treated utility poles,” Journal of Environmental Quality, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 507–514, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. T. G. Mercer and L. E. Frostick, “Leaching characteristics of CCA-treated wood waste: a UK study,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 427-428, pp. 165–174, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. W. J. Baldwin, E. A. Pasek, and P. D. Osborne, “Sediment toxicity study of CCA-treated marine piles,” Forest Products Journal, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 42–50, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. P. A. Cooper, Leaching of CCA: Is It a Problem? Environmental Considerations in the Manufacture, Use and Disposal of Pressure Treated Wood, Forest Products Society, Madison, Wis, USA, 1994.
  10. B. I. Khan, H. M. Solo-Gabriele, B. K. Dubey, T. G. Townsend, and Y. Cai, “Arsenic speciation of solvent-extracted leachate from new and weathered CCA-treated wood,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 38, no. 17, pp. 4527–4534, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Lebow, “Leaching of wood preservative components and their mobility in the environment. Summary of pertinent literature,” General Technical Report FPL-GTR-93:36, Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, Madison, Wis, USA, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  12. D. E. Stilwell and K. D. Gorny, “Contamination of soil with copper, chromium, and arsenic under decks built from pressure treated wood,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 22–29, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. C. Bull, “The chemistry of chromated copper arsenate II. Preservative-wood interactions,” Wood Science and Technology, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 459–466, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. A. Hingston, C. D. Collins, R. J. Murphy, and J. N. Lester, “Leaching of chromated copper arsenate wood preservatives: a review,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 111, no. 1, pp. 53–66, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. Y.-S. Choi, B. J. Ahn, and G.-H. Kim, “Extraction of chromium, copper, and arsenic from CCA-treated wood by using wood vinegar,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 120, pp. 328–331, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. T. Hung, P. J. Meng, and S. Wu, “Species of copper and zinc in sediments collected from the Antarctic Ocean and the Taiwan Erhjin Chi coastal area,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 223–230, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. Massara, C. N. Mulligan, and J. Hadjinicolaou, “Innovative treatment for chromium contaminated sites,” in Proceedings of the 57th Canadian Geotechnical Conference, Montreal, Canada, 2004.
  18. T. Miano, V. D'Orazio, and C. Zaccone, “Trace elements and food safety,” in PHEs, Environment and Human Health, C. Bini and J. Bech, Eds., Springer, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  19. D. R. Schwer III and D. H. McNear, “Chromated copper arsenate-treated fence posts in the agronomic landscape: soil properties controlling arsenic speciation and spatial distribution,” Journal of Environmental Quality, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 1172–1181, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. Wang and C. N. Mulligan, “Arsenic in Canada,” in Proceedings of the 57th Canadian Geotechnical Conference, Québec, Canada, 2004.
  21. EPRI, “Preservatives in soils adjacent to in service utility poles in the United States,” 1997.
  22. American Chemical Society, Reagent Chemicals, American Chemical Society Specifications, Washington, DC, USA, 7th edition, 1986.
  23. B. H. Sheldrick, Ed., Analytical Methods Manual, Land Resource Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada, 1984.
  24. W. P. Mortimer, The Environmental Persistence and Migration of Wood Pole Preservatives, Canadian Electrical Association, Montreal, Canada, 1991.
  25. “Historical Climate Data-Environment Canada-Advanced Search,” http://climate.weather.gc.ca/advanceSearch/searchHistoricData_e.html.
  26. L. Waldron, P. Cooper, and T. Ung, “Modeling of wood preservative leaching in service,” in Environmental Impacts of Preservative-Treated Wood Conference, pp. 81–97, Orlando, Fla, USA, 2004.
  27. Canada’s National Climate Archive, http://climate.weather.gc.ca/climateData/dailydata_e.html?StationID=6720.
  28. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines Summary Table, http://www.ccme.ca/publications/ceqg_rcqe.html.
  29. T. J. Whitmore, M. A. Riedinger-Whitmore, J. M. Smoak, K. V. Kolasa, E. A. Goddard, and R. Bindler, “Arsenic contamination of lake sediments in Florida: evidence of herbicide mobility from watershed soils,” Journal of Paleolimnology, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 869–884, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. F. J. Stevenson, Humus Chemistry: Genesis, Composition, Reactions, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1994.
  31. P. A. Cooper, “Leaching of CCA from treated wood: pH effects,” Forest Products Journal, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 30–32, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  32. P. L. Carey, R. G. Mclaren, and J. A. Adams, “Sorption of cupric, dichromate and arsenate ions in some New Zealand soils,” Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, vol. 87, no. 1–4, pp. 189–203, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. S. Williams, S. Lebow, and P. Lebow, “Effect of simulated rainfall and weathering on release of preservative elements from CCA treated wood,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 37, no. 18, pp. 4077–4082, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. A. Duker, E. J. M. Carranza, and M. Hale, “Arsenic geochemistry and health,” Environment International, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 631–641, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. Harte, C. Holden, R. Schneider, and C. Shirley, Toxics A to Z: A Guide to Everyday Pollution Hazards, University of California Press, 1991.
  36. R. N. Yong, C. N. Mulligan, and M. Fukue, Sustainable Practices in Geoenvironmental Engineering, CRC Press, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2014.