(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Figure 3: Views of grass-birch-willow and lupine-treated plots. (a) Rows of birch planted in plowed furrows surrounded by sparsely vegetated land surface originally seeded with grasses, but now largely covered by other native species (mainly crowberry) and BSC. (b) Willow and birch rows surrounded by BSC and other nongrasses. Soil collar is 20 cm in diameter. (c) Lupine-seeded plot presents highest biomass of all treatments. (d) Detail of area in (c) illustrates patchy distribution of lupine clusters with intervening open ground. Li-Cor soil gas analyzer system shown.