Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Applied and Environmental Soil Science
Volume 2016, Article ID 5390808, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5390808
Research Article

Integrated Nanozero Valent Iron and Biosurfactant-Aided Remediation of PCB-Contaminated Soil

Northern Region Persistent Organic Pollution Control (NRPOP) Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial University, St. John’s, NL, Canada A1B 3X5

Received 24 February 2016; Accepted 28 April 2016

Academic Editor: Ezio Ranieri

Copyright © 2016 He Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. Pal, J. B. Weber, and M. R. Overcash, “Fate of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil-plant systems,” in Residue Reviews, pp. 45–98, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  2. Canadian Council of Resource and Environment Ministers (CCREM), The PCB Story, (CCREM), Toronto, Canada, 1986.
  3. S. Tanabe, “PCB problems in the future: foresight from current knowledge,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 5–28, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), “Canadian soil quality guidelines for the protection of environmental and human health: polychlorinated biphenyls (total),” in Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines, Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Winnipeg, Canada, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  5. US Environmental Protection Agency, PCBs in the United States industrial use and environmental distribution, p. 24, 1976, http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPDF.cgi/2000I275.PDF?Dockey=2000I275.PDF.
  6. S. Jensen, “Report of a new chemical hazard,” New Scientist, vol. 32, no. 612, p. 445, 1966. View at Google Scholar
  7. W. M. J. Strachan, “Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): fate and effects in the Canadian environment,” EPS Report 4/HA/2, Environment Canada, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  8. L. A. Barrie, D. Gregor, B. Hargrave et al., “Arctic contaminants: sources, occurrence and pathways,” Science of The Total Environment, vol. 122, no. 1-2, pp. 1–74, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. AMEC Earth and Environmental Ltd, Commission 88.1 Environmental Site Investigation B371 CHPP Tanks, Prepared for Defence Construction Canada, Goose Bay, Canada, 2008.
  10. Federal Contaminated Sites Portal, Federal Contaminated Sites Action Plan (FCSAP), February 2014, http://www.federalcontaminatedsites.gc.ca/default.asp?lang=en.
  11. A. Mikszewski, Emerging Technologies for the in Situe Remediation of PCB-contaminated Soils and Sediments: Bioremediation and Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron, US Environmental Protection Agency, 2004.
  12. S. M. Cook, Assessing the Use and Application of Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticle Technology for Remediation at Contaminated Sites, Jackson State University, 2009.
  13. W.-X. Zhang, “Nanoscale iron particles for environmental remediation: an overview,” Journal of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 5, no. 3-4, pp. 323–332, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. N. C. Mueller and B. Nowack, “Nanoparticles for remediation: solving big problems with little particles,” Elements, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 395–400, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. Varma, “Greener synthesis of noble metal nanostructures and nanocomposites,” in Presented at the U.S. EPA Science Forum: Innovative Technologies—Key to Environmental and Economic Progress, Washington, DC, USA, 2008.
  16. W. Chu and K. H. Chan, “The mechanism of the surfactant-aided soil washing system for hydrophobic and partial hydrophobic organics,” Science of The Total Environment, vol. 307, no. 1–3, pp. 83–92, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. Urum, T. Pekdemir, and M. Gopur, “Optimum conditions for washing of crude oil-contaminated soil with biosurfactant solutions,” Process Safety and Environmental Protection, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 203–209, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. Feng, L. Lorenzen, C. Aldrich, and P. W. Maré, “Ex situ diesel contaminated soil washing with mechanical methods,” Minerals Engineering, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 1093–1100, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H. I. Gomes, C. Dias-Ferreira, L. M. Ottosen, and A. B. Ribeiro, “Electrodialytic remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls contaminated soil with iron nanoparticles and two different surfactants,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 433, pp. 189–195, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. T. Lyons, D. W. Grosse, and R. A. Parker, EPA engineering issue: technology alternatives for the remediation of PCB contaminated soils and sediments (No. EPA/600/S-13/079), Washington, DC, USA, 2013.
  21. B. Zhang, G. H. Huang, and B. Chen, “Enhanced bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soils through cold-adapted bacteria,” Petroleum Science and Technology, vol. 26, no. 7-8, pp. 955–971, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. X. Qin, B. Chen, G. Huang, and B. Zhang, “A relation-analysis-based approach for assessing risks of petroleum-contaminated sites in Western Canada,” New Developments in Sustainable Petroleum Engineering, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 183–200, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  23. P. F. Amaral, M. A. Z. Coelho, I. M. Marrucho, and J. A. Coutinho, “Biosurfactants from yeasts: characteristics, production and application,” in Biosurfactants, pp. 236–249, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. H. Xia and Z. Yan, “Effects of biosurfactant on the remediation of contaminated soils,” in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering (iCBBE '10), pp. 1–4, IEEE, Chengdu, China, June 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Unified Facilities Guide Specifications (USGS), Soil Washing through Separation/Solubilization, UFGS-02 54 23, 2010, https://www.wbdg.org/ccb/DOD/UFGS/UFGS%2002%2054%2023.pdf.
  26. H. I. Gomes, C. Dias-Ferreira, and A. B. Ribeiro, “Overview of in situ and ex situ remediation technologies for PCB-contaminated soils and sediments and obstacles for full-scale application,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 445-446, pp. 237–260, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. W. Y. Shiu and D. Mackay, “A critical review of aqueous solubilities, vapor pressures, Henry's law constants, and octanol–water partition coefficients of the polychlorinated biphenyls,” Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 911–929, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. Q. Cai, B. Zhang, B. Chen, Z. Zhu, W. Lin, and T. Cao, “Screening of biosurfactant producers from petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sources in cold marine environments,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 86, no. 1-2, pp. 402–410, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. F. Peng, Z. Liu, L. Wang, and Z. Shao, “An oil-degrading bacterium: Rhodococcus erythropolis strain 3C-9 and its biosurfactants,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 102, no. 6, pp. 1603–1611, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. S. Zheng, B. Liu, J. Ping, B. Chen, H. J. Wu, and B. Y. Zhang, “Vortex- and shaker-assisted liquid–liquid microextraction (VSA-LLME) coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in offshore produced water,” Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, vol. 226, no. 9, pp. 318–331, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. N. C. Müller and B. Nowack, “Nano zero valent iron—the solution for water and soil remediation,” Report of the Observatory NANO, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  32. P. Varanasi, A. Fullana, and S. Sidhu, “Remediation of PCB contaminated soils using iron nano-particles,” Chemosphere, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 1031–1038, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. L. Hendraningrat and O. Torsæter, “Metal oxide-based nanoparticles: revealing their potential to enhance oil recovery in different wettability systems,” Applied Nanoscience, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 181–199, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. A. Roustaei, S. Saffarzadeh, and M. Mohammadi, “An evaluation of modified silica nanoparticles’ efficiency in enhancing oil recovery of light and intermediate oil reservoirs,” Egyptian Journal of Petroleum, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 427–433, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar