Laboratory Biomarkers, Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity, and Intellectual Function in Children with Sickle Cell DiseaseRead the full article
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Serological Detection of Rh-Del Phenotype among Rh-Negative Blood Donors at National Blood Center, Yangon, Myanmar
Background. Red cell Rhesus (Rh) antigen expression is influenced by the genetic polymorphism of RHD and RHCE genes and reveals serologically different reactions of RhD variants such as partial D, weak D, and Rh-Del. Serologically, Rh-Del type can only be detected by an adsorption-elution technique, and it might be mistyped as Rh-negative. The prevalence of Rh-Del has not been reported yet in Myanmar. Method. A total of 222 Rh-negative blood donors in the National Blood Center were tested for weak D and Rh-Del by indirect antihuman globulin and adsorption-elution method, respectively. RhCE typing was performed among Rh-negative and Rh-Del. Results. Of them, 75.2% (167/222) were Rh-negative, 15.8% (35/222) were Rh-Del, and 9% (20/222) were weak D. Of 202 blood donors (167 true Rh-negative and 35 Rh-Del), all of the Rh-Del positives were C-antigen-positive with 94.3% Ccee phenotype (33/35) and 5.7% CCee (2/35). Most of the Rh-negative donors (80.2%) were ccee phenotype (134/167). Conclusion. About half of Rh-Del subjects were repeated donors, and attention was needed to avoid transfusion of truly Rh-negative patients to prevent alloimmunization. It is recommended to do Rh-Del typing of Rh-negative donors who are C-antigen-positive and consider moving them to the Rh-positive pool. Further study is needed to clarify the alloimmunization status for transfusion of Rh-Del blood to Rh-negative recipients. Molecular markers for RhD-negative and D variants should be established in the Myanmar population to improve selection of antisera for Rh typing and enhance safety of the transfusion services.
Haematological Profile of Adults with Malaria Parasitaemia Visiting the Volta Regional Hospital, Ghana
Background. Malaria is known to cause severe health consequences due to its marked effects and alteration on the haematological parameters of infected individuals. This study evaluated the haematological profile of adult individuals infected with the malaria parasite. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted using archived data of malaria positive cases from January 2017 to March 15, 2019. Data retrieved included subjects’ demographics, malaria parasite count, malaria parasite species, and full blood count parameters. A total of 236 malaria positive subjects were included in the study. Results. The study showed that more females were infected with the malaria parasite than males (69.07% and 30.93%, respectively). A total of 87.3% of the study population were infected with Plasmodium falciparum as compared to 12.7% infected with Plasmodium malariae. The commonest haematological abnormalities that were seen in this study were lymphopenia (56.78%), anaemia (55.51%), thrombocytopenia (47.46%), eosinopenia (45.76%), neutropenia (29.24%), monocytosis (21.19%), and leucocytosis (17.37%) in the infected subjects. The mean platelet count of P. falciparum-infected subjects was decreased as compared to the mean platelet count of P. malariae-infected subjects. There was a significant ( value <0.05) decrease in the number of platelet count with every unit increase in parasite density. Conclusion. Study participants infected with malaria demonstrated vital changes in haematological parameters with anaemia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, monocytosis, and eosinopenia being the most important predictors of malaria infection especially with P. falciparum species.
An Update on the Reversal of Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants
Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) include thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and coagulation factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, and betrixaban. NOACs have several benefits over warfarin, including faster time to the achieve effect, rapid onset of action, fewer documented food and drug interactions, lack of need for routine INR monitoring, and improved patient satisfaction. Local hemostatic measures, supportive care, and withholding the next NOAC dose are usually sufficient to achieve hemostasis among patients presenting with minor bleeding. The administration of reversal agents should be considered in patients on NOAC's with major bleeding manifestations (life-threatening bleeding, or major uncontrolled bleeding), or those who require rapid anticoagulant reversal for an emergent surgical procedure. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved two reversal agents for NOACs: idarucizumab for dabigatran and andexanet alfa for apixaban and rivaroxaban. The American College of Cardiology (ACC), American Heart Association (AHA), and Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) have released an updated guideline for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation that provides indications for the use of these reversal agents. In addition, the final results of the ANNEXA-4 study that evaluated the efficacy and safety of andexanet alfa were recently published. Several agents are in different phases of clinical trials, and among them, ciraparantag has shown promising results. However, their higher cost and limited availability remains a concern. Here, we provide a brief review of the available reversal agents for NOACs (nonspecific and specific), recent updates on reversal strategies, lab parameters (including point-of-care tests), NOAC resumption, and agents in development.
Effectiveness of Nurse Led Intervention on Health Related Quality of Life among Children with Sickle Cell Disease in Oman: A Pilot Study
Introduction. The children with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) generally have poor Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL). The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of nurse led intervention on HRQOL among children with SCD. Methods. A total of 30 samples were selected using convenient sampling. Children with SCD and their caregivers completed Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) SCD-Module version 3.0. The nurse led intervention was given to the study group for 10 consecutive weeks. The control group received the routine medical care. On completion of 10 weeks, the post-test was conducted. Results. The participants in study group had poor HRQOL scores in pre-test. After nurse led intervention, the HRQOL score in the study group significantly improved . The control group did not show any significant difference in the pretest and post-test. Discussion. Therefore nurse led intervention is effective in improving HRQOL among children with SCD.
Prognostic Impact of Lymphoid Enhancer Factor 1 Expression and Serum Galectin.3 in Egyptian AML Patients
Background. Deregulation of the Wnt signaling pathway had a role in haematological malignancies. Previous studies reported that lymphoid enhancer factor 1 (LEF1) expression and serum Galectin-3 level could affect clinical parameters and outcome in acute myeloid leukemia patients, but as far as we know, no study has addressed their combined effect on AML patients. Aim. We studied the expression of LEF1 by real-time qPCR and measured serum level of Gal.3 by ELISA technique in peripheral blood of 69 AML patients and correlated it with different clinicopathological criteria of patients, response, PFS and OS. Results. We found high expression (LEF1high) was associated with better OS () and EFS () compared to LEF1low, low serum Gal.3 level had better OS () and EFS () compared to high serum Gal.3 level. LEF1high less likely to carry a FLT3-ITD () compared to LEF1low patient, also LEF1high characterized by favorable risk () than LEF1low patients. While patients with higher Gal-3 levels characterized by poor risk () than lower Gal.3 lels, also more likely to carry a FLT3-ITD with borderline significance (). Combined LEF1high/Gal.3 low patients had lower baseline blast percentages (), favorable risk (), less likely to carry FLT3-ITD (), higher CR rate (), shorter time to CR (0.001) than other groups. Among high Gal.3 level group, LEF1high expression improved OS and EFS (20 and 15 months respectively) vs LEF1low expression (13 and 8 months respectively). Conclusion. We conclude that high LEF1 expression was a favorable prognostic marker which can define AML patient risk and outcome independent from assessing the serum galectin.3 level.
Study of Frequency and Characteristics of Red Blood Cell Alloimmunization in Thalassemic Patients: Multicenter Study from Palestine
Background. β-Thalassemia is a common inherited hemolytic disorder in Palestine. Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is the principal treatment but it may cause RBC alloimmunization. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and characteristics of RBC alloimmunization among thalassemic patients in northern governorates of Palestine. Methods. A prospective multicenter observational study was conducted in the thalassemia transfusion centers in the northern governorates of Palestine. The study included 215 thalassemia patients who received regular blood transfusions. Clinical and transfusion records of patients were examined. Antibody screening and identification was conducted using the microcolum gel technique. Results. Two hundred fifteen patients were included in the study. More than half (52.1%) of the patients were males. The median age of patients was 18 years (range: 12–24 years). The most frequent blood group was A (40.5%). Alloantibodies were detected in 12.6% of patients. Anti-D (33.3%), anti-K (25.9%) and anti-E (14.8%) were the most commonly isolated antibodies. There was no association between age, sex, starting age of transfusion, number of transfused units, history of splenectomy and alloimmunization. Conclusions. Anti-Rh and anti-K antibodies were common among this cohort of patients. Age, sex, starting age of transfusion, number of transfused units, and history of splenectomy could not predict the occurrence of alloimmunization.