Magnitude of Anemia and Associated Factors among HIV-Infected Children Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in Pastoral Community, Ethiopia: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional StudyRead the full article
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Assessing the Performance of Extended Half-Life Coagulation Factor VIII, FC Fusion Protein by Using Chromogenic and One-Stage Assays in Saudi Hemophilia A Patients
Background. The one-stage assay is the most common method to measure factor VIII activity (FVIII : C) in hemophilia A patients. The chromogenic assay is another two-stage test involving purified coagulation factors followed by factor Xa-specific chromogenic substrate. Aim. This study aimed to assess the discrepancy and correlation between the chromogenic and one-stage assays in measuring FVIII : C levels in hemophilia patients receiving Extended Half-Life Elocta® as a recombinant extended half-life coagulation factor. Methods. We performed a study comparing the measurements of FVIII : C levels by the chromogenic versus the one-stage assays at different drug levels. Data of FVIII : C levels, dosage, and the time interval from administration to measurement were retrieved from the hospital records. The correlation, mean differences, and discrepancy between the two assays were calculated. The linear regression analysis was used to predict the time interval till reaching 1% FVIII : C. Results. Fourteen patients with 56 samples were included in the study. Of them, 13 patients were receiving Elocta® as a prophylactic, while one was receiving Elocta® on demand. One-third of these samples showed a discrepancy between the chromogenic and one-stage assays. The two assays were well correlated. Mean differences were significant at the individual and the time interval level. The time since the last Elocta® injection could significantly predict FVIII : C levels (β = 0.366, ). Conclusion. Our findings suggested a significant difference between both methods; the FVIII : C levels measured by the one-stage assay were less than those estimated by the chromogenic assay. However, the measurements of FVIII levels by the two assays were well correlated but discrepant in one-third of the samples. The levels of FVIII : C reach 1% after 5.4 days since the last Elocta® administration.
Demographics of Rhesus Phenotype of Blood Donors in Calabar: A Case Study of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria
Background. Rhesus antigens have been documented to cause haemolytic disease of the newborn as well as acute and delayed transfusion reactions. This study was performed to evaluate the frequency of rhesus antigens (C, c, D, E, and e) in the studied population. Method. This study was a cross-sectional study involving 130 prospective blood donors attending University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH) donor clinic. Donors were grouped for Rh antisera (anti-E, anti-e, anti-C, anti-c, and anti-D) using the standard serologic technique. Result. The most prevalent Rh antigen was “c” (98.5%), followed by “D” (97.7%), while the least was “C” (30.7%). The most prevalent phenotype was cDe/cDe (R0R0). Conclusion. This work therefore concludes that the most prevalent rhesus antigen and rhesus phenotype was c and cDe/cDe among blood donors in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital.
Alopecia and Iron Deficiency: An Interventional Pilot Study in Primary Care to Improve the Request of Ferritin
Background. The aim was to study the demographic and laboratory pattern of primary care patients with alopecia undergoing laboratory testing, more specifically, the request of hemoglobin and ferritin and values showing anemia and iron deficiency, and to evaluate the effects of an intervention involving automatic ferritin registration and measurement when not requested. Methods. Retrospective and prospective observational cross-sectional studies were conducted, as well as an intervention to automatically register and measure ferritin when not requested by the general practitioner. Results. There were 343 and 1032 primary care laboratory requests prompted by alopecia in the retrospective and prospective studies. Hemoglobin was requested in almost every patient and ferritin in 88%. 5% of the cohort had anemia, and 25% had iron deficiency. The intervention registered and measured that 123 ferritin and 24 iron deficiencies were detected in patients with alopecia, all women, at a cost of 10.6€. Conclusion. Primary care patients with alopecia and laboratory tests request were mainly young female. Our intervention added ferritin when not requested, detecting iron deficiency in 27.9% of women, potentially avoiding the adverse effects of iron deficiency on hair loss.
Changes in Blood Profile from Steady State in Patients with Sickle Cell Anemia Admitted for Vaso-occlusive Crisis and Acute Chest Syndrome
Close to half of all patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) will have at least one episode of acute chest syndrome (ACS) during their lifetime. Multiple cells and molecules involved with the inflammatory cascade play a role in the development of ACS. We found that patients with SCD who developed ACS as a complication of a vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) had a significant increase in leukocytes and decrease in platelets from their steady state when compared with a separate admission for VOC without ACS development. No significant change from steady state hemoglobin or reticulocyte count was noted between the two admissions. These results indicate that trending laboratory markers may be useful to predict patients at risk for ACS development.
Comediation of Erythrocyte Haemolysis by Erythrocyte-Derived Microparticles and Complement during Malaria Infection
Background. Due to the sustained morbidity and mortality that malaria-associated anaemia imposes on patients, malaria is still a global threat, most especially, to residents in sub-Saharan Africa. Merozoite invasion and destruction of erythrocytes, a target for this study, have been necessary due to its unique nature and also since the erythrocytes suffer the most brunt of malarial infection leading to anaemia. The issue of malaria anaemia has to do with why uninfected RBCs get destroyed and even more so than infected ones. Studies have proposed that cytophilic anti-RSP2 (ring surface protein 2—merozoite rhoptry protein 2) antibodies present in sera enhance phagocytosis of RSP2-tagged RBCs by macrophages either directly or via complement, while others have proposed transfer of RSP2 to both infected and uninfected RBCs which may render them susceptible to phagocytosis. What is missing is the agent involved in the transfer of these parasite-induced surface proteins onto the uninfected RBCs, i.e., the mediator molecules. Considering the intracellular location of the parasite in the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane and the absence of a transport mechanism such as the Golgi apparatus within the mature RBC, since the latter has no nucleus, we propose that erythrocyte-derived microparticles (EMPs) may be the possible mediators. Aim. This study aimed at examining the immunological interactions between EMPs released during malarial infections and host erythrocytes that may lead to their lysis possibly through complement mediation. Methods. This was an experimental study during which malarial EMPs were isolated by differential centrifugation of malaria-positive plasma. This was followed by cell-based in vitro assays where malaria-positive EMPs were added to uninfected blood group “O” negative erythrocytes in the presence of complement and haemolysis checked for. Results and Conclusion. At a fixed volume of 50 μL complement, there were statistically significant () increases in mean percentage haemolysis as the volume of EMPs increased. Similarly, at a fixed volume of 50 μL EMPs, there were statistically significant () increases in mean percentage haemolysis with increasing volumes of complement. This was an indication that both complement and EMPs contribute significantly to uninfected erythrocyte haemolysis during malaria infection.
Assessment of Confirmed Clinical Hypersensitivity to Rituximab in Patients Affected with B-Cell Neoplasia
Rituximab hypersensitivity reactions are rare but are one of the main causes of rituximab elimination from antilymphoma immunochemotherapy treatments. While the clinical picture may be indistinguishable from other infusion-related reactions, hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) do not disappear and instead become more intense with subsequent administrations. Objective. To describe the use of the 12-step protocol for desensitization to intravenous rituximab in clinical practice and the complementary study of a possible IgE-mediated HSR in the context of B-cell lymphoma treatment. Methods. A 12-step rituximab desensitization protocol was performed prospectively within clinical practice in 10 patients with a history of severe infusion reactions or in patients who had a repeated reaction at subsequent doses despite taking more intense preventive measures. Skin prick tests were performed at the time of reaction and at a later time to eliminate false negatives due to possible drug interference. Results. Overall, with the desensitization protocol, 70% of patients were able to complete the scheduled immunochemotherapy. Two patients had to discontinue the therapy due to clinical persistence and the third due to lymphoma progression. Intradermal tests with 0.1% rituximab were positive in only 20% of cases, demonstrating a mechanism of hypersensitivity. Conclusions. The 12-step desensitization protocol is very effective and assumable within healthcare practice. There is a need to determine the mechanism underlying the infusion reaction in a large proportion of cases due to the risk of future drug exposure.