A Phase II Trial of Melphalan Based Reduced-Intensity Conditioning for Transplantation of T-Replete HLA-Haploidentical Peripheral Blood Stem Cells with Posttransplant Cyclophosphamide in Patients with Hematologic MalignanciesRead the full article
Advances in Hematology publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of hematology.
Advances in Hematology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Feasibility Study of the “HemoTypeSC” Test for the Rapid Screening of Sickle Cell Disease in Côte D’Ivoire
Sickle cell disease is a hereditary disease that predominantly affects black people. It is very widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly at the Lehmann “sickle belt” level, where the prevalence of the hemoglobin S involves at least 10% of the population in West Africa and can reach 40% in Central Africa. In Côte d’Ivoire, the prevalence of the hemoglobin S is about 12–14% in the general population and about 11.71% in the child population in Abidjan. On the other hand, its coexistence with other hemoglobin phenotypes such as AC (6.2%) and β-thalassemia (2.7%) traits may also cause composite heterogeneous sickle cell disease, e.g., SC or S/β-thalassemia in this study. Since 2009, sickle cell disease has been recognized as a public health problem; however, much still remains to be performed despite the progress achieved. The objective of this study is thus to promote a rapid screening for the struggling against sickle cell disease in Côte d’Ivoire. This study was carried out over 6 months (April–September 2019) and has included 336 children, of which 236 all-comers, recruited in the municipality of Treichville in Abidjan and 100 other children with already known hemoglobin phenotype followed up in the Hematology Department of the University Hospital of Treichville. Two tests were used: the HemoTypeSC™ for rapid screening and the hemoglobin electrophoresis which is the reference method used for confirming the diagnosis in the laboratory. The findings confirmed the reliability of the HemoTypeSC™ with a sensitivity and specificity at 100% for the detection of hemoglobin A, S, and C. On the other hand, this sensitivity and specificity drop to 98.2% and 99.7%, respectively, when we analyze all the 336 children together, including the cases with HbF detected by hemoglobin electrophoresis. Hence, the importance of performing certainty tests following the HemoTypeSC™ screening test in order to determine the accurate phenotypes and proportions of the types of hemoglobin. The prevalence of hemoglobin S in subgroup 1 of 236 children of all-comers was 15%. The HemoTypeSC™ is therefore reliable, inexpensive, and disposable for rapid screening and early detection of sickle cell disease in Côte d’Ivoire. The HemoTypeSC™ provides rapid detection of hemoglobin phenotypes HbAA, HbSS, HbSC, HbCC, HbAS, and HbAC.
Safe Blood Transfusion Practices among Nurses in a Major Referral Center in Ghana
Errors in transfusion of blood and blood products can lead to preventable morbidity and mortality. Nurses constitute a significant aspect of the transfusion process as they are the last in the chain of getting blood directly to the patient. They must, therefore, be conversant with the current standard of national and international guidelines on blood transfusion and appropriate management of adverse transfusion events. This study assesses the knowledge and practices of blood transfusion safety among nurses at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. A descriptive cross-sectional design was employed, and structured questionnaire (Routine Blood Transfusion Knowledge Questionnaire) was used to collect data from 279 nurses from seven clinical directorates of the hospital. The data were processed with Stata version 14.0. Variables were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and relationships were drawn using inferential statistics. Over 90% of the respondents had a minimum of a diploma in nursing or midwifery, 63% had performed blood transfusion at least 5 times, and 46% had never received any training on blood transfusion. The mean score obtained in all four categories of blood transfusion knowledge assessed was 29, with 54% of the respondents scoring below the mean. The highest overall score on knowledge was 53%. This indicates that nurses had poor knowledge regarding safe blood transfusion practices as stipulated in the clinical guidelines for blood transfusion by Ghana’s National Blood Service. There was no statistically significant relationship between training/experience and knowledge of safe blood transfusion practices. Regular and continuous update training and audit are needed to safeguard patient safety during blood transfusion.
Efficacy and Tolerance of Vascular Electrical Stimulation Therapy in the Management of Vaso-Occlusive Crises in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease: A Phase II Single-Centre Randomized Study in Ivory Coast
Background. Vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) is the primary cause of hospitalization in patients with sickle cell disease. Treatment mainly consists of intravenous morphine or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which have many dose-related side effects. The question arises as to whether vascular electrical stimulation therapy (VEST) could be effective or not on VOCs. Objective. To measure the effectiveness and safety of VEST in reducing the median time spent in severe VOC. Methods. We conducted a phase II, single blinded, randomized, controlled, triple-arm, comparative trial. We included thirty (30) adult patients with severe vaso-occlusive crisis. The study arms were divided as follows: our control group (group 0) constituted of 10 patients followed with conventional therapy (Analgesics + Hydration + NSAIDs), while 20 patients were divided equally into two interventional arms—10 patients followed with VEST + Analgesics + Hydration (group 1) and the other 10 patients followed with VEST + Analgesics + Hydration + NSAIDs (group 2). The primary efficacy endpoint was median time to severe crisis elimination. The secondary end points were median time to end-of-crisis, median tramadol consumption, progress of the haemoglobin level over 3 days, side effects, and treatment failure. Results. The age ranged from 14 to 37 years, including 23 women. We noted a beneficial influence of the VEST on the median time to severe crisis (VAS greater than 2) elimination; 17 hours (group 1) against 3.5 hours (group 2) and 4 hours (group 3) with value = 0.0448. Similar significant results were obtained on the diminution of total duration of the crisis (VAS over 0) and median tramadol consumption in patients in the interventional arms. Conclusion. These statistically significant results in the interventional arms suggest that VEST could be an alternative treatment of VOC in sickle cell patients.
Oral Factor Xa Inhibitors versus Warfarin for the Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease
Introduction. Warfarin remains the preferred oral anticoagulant for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have become preferred for treatment of VTE in the general population, patients with advanced CKD were excluded from the landmark trials. Postmarketing, safety data have demonstrated oral factor Xa inhibitors (OFXais) such as apixaban and rivaroxaban to be alternatives to warfarin for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation. However, it remains unknown if these safety data can be extrapolated to the treatment of VTE and CKD. Methods. A retrospective cohort study from January 2013 to October 2019 was performed at NYU Langone Health. All adult patients with CKD stage 4 or greater, treated with anticoagulation for VTE, were screened. The primary outcome was tolerability of anticoagulant therapy at 3 months, defined as a composite of bleeding, thromboembolic events, and/or discontinuation rates. The secondary outcomes included bleeding, discontinuations, and recurrent thromboembolism. Results. There were 56 patients evaluated, of which 39 (70%) received warfarin and 17 (30%) received an OFXai (apixaban or rivaroxaban). Tolerability at 3 months was assessed in 48/56 patients (86%). A total of 34/48 (71%) patients tolerated anticoagulation at 3 months, 12 (80%) in the OFXai arm, and 22 (67%) in the warfarin arm (). There were 10/48 (21%) patients that experienced any bleeding events within 3 months, 7 on warfarin, and 3 on apixaban. Recurrence of thromboembolism within 3 months occurred in 3 patients on warfarin, with no recurrence in the OFXai arm. Discussion. OFXais were better tolerated compared to warfarin for the treatment of VTE in CKD, with lower rates of bleeding, discontinuations, and recurrent thromboembolism in a small cohort. Future prospective studies are necessary to confirm these findings.
Obesity as a Possible Risk Factor for Progression from Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance Progression into Multiple Myeloma: Could Myeloma Be Prevented with Metformin Treatment?
Obesity is increasingly associated with the transformation of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) into multiple myeloma (MM). Obesity, MGUS, and MM share common etiopathogenesis mechanisms including altered insulin axis and the action of inflammatory cytokines. Consistent with this interconnection, metformin could predominantly exert inhibition of these pathophysiological factors and thus be an attractive therapeutic option for MGUS. Despite the possible clinical significance, only a limited number of epidemiological studies have focused on obesity as a risk factor for MGUS and MM. This review describes multiple biological pathways modulated by metformin at the cellular level and their possible impacts on the biology of MGUS and its progression into MM.
Enhanced Hypercoagulability in Sickle Cell Anaemia Patients with Chronic Leg Ulcers
Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA) is associated with a hypercoagulable state resulting in a predisposition to venous thromboembolism. With improvements in the quality of care, more patients with SCA survive into adulthood with an associated increase in the frequency of end-organ damage and chronic complications such as chronic leg ulcers (CLUs). These ulcers rarely occur in the first decade of life and are recurrent, painful, and slow-to-heal. This study tested the hypothesis that coagulation is enhanced in SCA patients with CLU. 145 participants (50 SCA with CLU, 50 SCA without CLU, and 45 with haemoglobin AA) were assessed to determine their coagulation profile using selected tests of coagulation. The SCA with the CLU group had the lowest mean haemoglobin (Hb) concentration. SCA patients with and without CLUs had elevated mean platelet counts, shorter mean aPTT, and marginally prolonged mean PT compared to HbAA patients. SCA with CLUs patients had a significantly shortened aPTT than those without CLUs ( = 0.035) and HbAA ( = 0.009). There were significant differences in the mean PT between SCA with CLUs patients and HbAA ( = 0.017); SCA without CLU and HbAA ( = 0.014). SCA with and without CLUs patients had higher mean D-dimer levels compared to HbAA. There was a negative correlation between Hb concentration and duration of CLU (r = -0.331, = 0.021). In conclusion, our study demonstrates a heightened hypercoagulability in SCA patients with CLUs. We did not test for platelet activation, and it is not clear what role, if any, the enhanced hypercoagulability plays in the pathogenesis of CLUs in SCA. It will be useful to ascertain if antiplatelet agents or/and anticoagulants quicken the healing of CLUs in SCA patients.