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Advances in Hematology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 485943, 9 pages
Review Article

AIDS-Related Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

1Floyd & Delores Jones Cancer Institute, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
2Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA

Received 1 November 2011; Accepted 24 November 2011

Academic Editor: Kikkeri N. Naresh

Copyright © 2012 Prakash Vishnu and David M. Aboulafia. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In economically developed countries, AIDS-related lymphoma (ARL) accounts for a large proportion of malignances in HIV-infected individuals. Since the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996, epidemiology and prognosis of ARL have changed. While there is a slight increase in the incidence of Hodgkin’s lymphoma in HIV-infected individuals, use of HAART has contributed to a decline in the incidence of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) and also a decrease in the overall incidence of ARL. Strategies that employ HAART, improved supportive care, and the use of Rituximab with multi-agent chemotherapy have contributed to improved rates of complete remission and survival of patients with ARL that rival those seen in stage and histology matched HIV negative NHL patients. Most recent clinical trials demonstrate better outcomes with the use of rituximab in ARL. Tumor histogenesis (germinal center vs. non-germinal center origin) is associated with lymphoma-specific outcomes in the setting of AIDS-related diffuse-large B cell lymphoma. High-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and autologous stem cell rescue (ASCT) can be effective for a subset of patients with relapsed ARL. HIV sero-status alone should not preclude consideration of ASCT in the setting of ARL relapse. Clinical trials investigating the role of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant in ARL are currently underway.