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Advances in Hematology
Volume 2012, Article ID 932658, 7 pages
Review Article

Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of HIV-Associated Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Resource-Limited Settings

1Department of Medicine, University of Washington/Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
2Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
3Vaccine and Infectious Disease, Public Health Sciences, and Clinical Research Divisions, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA

Received 1 December 2011; Accepted 23 January 2012

Academic Editor: Lisa K. Hicks

Copyright © 2012 Matthew Ulrickson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Lymphoma was a common complication of HIV infection in the pre-antiretroviral era, and the incidence of HIV-associated lymphoma has dropped dramatically since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in resource-rich regions. Conversely, lymphoma is an increasingly common complication of HIV infection in resource-limited settings where the prevalence of HIV infection is high. Relatively little is known, however, about the true incidence and optimal treatment regimens for HIV-associated lymphoma in resource-poor regions. We review the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma in developing nations and highlight areas for further research that may benefit care in both settings. Examples include risk modification and dose modification of chemotherapy based on HIV risk factors, improving our understanding of the current burden of disease through national cancer registries, and developing cost-effective hematopathological diagnostic strategies to optimize care delivery and maximize use of available chemotherapy.