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Advances in Hematology
Volume 2014, Article ID 986938, 9 pages
Review Article

Treatment of Febrile Neutropenia and Prophylaxis in Hematologic Malignancies: A Critical Review and Update

1Hospital Universitario Torrejón de Ardoz, Servicio de Hematología, Calle Mateo Inurria, 28850 Madrid, Spain
2Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón, Servicio de Hematología, Calle Budapest 1, 28922 Madrid, Spain
3Unidad de Medicina Interna, Sección de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón, Calle Budapest 1, 28922 Madrid, Spain

Received 30 July 2014; Revised 18 October 2014; Accepted 3 November 2014; Published 27 November 2014

Academic Editor: Myriam Labopin

Copyright © 2014 Paola Villafuerte-Gutierrez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Febrile neutropenia is one of the most serious complications in patients with haematological malignancies and chemotherapy. A prompt identification of infection and empirical antibiotic therapy can prolong survival. This paper reviews the guidelines about febrile neutropenia in the setting of hematologic malignancies, providing an overview of the definition of fever and neutropenia, and categories of risk assessment, management of infections, and prophylaxis.