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Advances in Hematology
Volume 2016, Article ID 5385972, 8 pages
Review Article

Autologous Graft-versus-Tumor Effect: Reality or Fiction?

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA

Received 17 May 2016; Revised 8 July 2016; Accepted 25 July 2016

Academic Editor: Jan S. Moreb

Copyright © 2016 Luis F. Porrata. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In contrast to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the current dogma is not an evidence of graft-versus-tumor effect in autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; thus, it is assumed that autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation only relies on the high-dose chemotherapy to improve clinical outcomes. However, recent studies argue in favor of the existence of an autologous graft-versus-tumor without the detrimental complications of graft-versus-host disease due to the nonspecific immune response from the infused donor alloreactive immune effector cells in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Herein, this paper reviews the clinical evidence of an autologous graft-versus-tumor effect based on the autograft collected and infused host immune effector cells and host immunity recovery after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation affecting clinical outcomes in cancer patients.