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Advances in Human-Computer Interaction
Volume 2010, Article ID 215825, 16 pages
Research Article

Human Control Law and Brain Activity of Voluntary Motion by Utilizing a Balancing Task with an Inverted Pendulum

1Department of Robotics and Mechatronics, Tokyo Denki University, 2-2 Kanda-Nishiki-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8457, Japan
2Department of Robotics and Mechatronics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji-Shi, Tokyo 192-0397, Japan

Received 4 November 2009; Revised 28 April 2010; Accepted 17 June 2010

Academic Editor: Armando Barreto

Copyright © 2010 Satoshi Suzuki et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Human characteristics concerning voluntary motion control are investigated, because this motion is fundamental for the machine operation and human-computer system. Using a force feedback haptic device and a balancing task of a virtual inverted pendulum, participants were trained in the task, and hand motion/force was measured, and brain activity was monitored. First, through brain analysis by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and motion analysis of the pendulum, we identified a participant who was the most expert. Next, control characteristics of the most expert were investigated by considering the operational force and delay factor of a human. As a result, it was found that predictive control based on velocity information was used predominantly although a perception feedback control against the pendulum posture worked. And it was shown that an on-off intermittency control, which was a strategy for the skilled balancing, can be described well by a liner model involving two types of time shifts for the position and velocity. In addition, it was confirmed that the cortex activity for observation in an ocular motor control area and visual processing area was strong to enhance above-mentioned control strategies.