Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in High Energy Physics
Volume 2012, Article ID 235686, 34 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/235686
Review Article

Geoneutrinos

1Department of Geology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
2Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA

Received 9 July 2012; Accepted 20 October 2012

Academic Editor: Arthur B. McDonald

Copyright © 2012 Ondřej Šrámek et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. W. Hopkins, “Preliminary observations on the refrigeration of the globe,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, vol. 129, pp. 381–385, 1839. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. D. J. Stevenson, “Earth formation and evolution,” in Evolution of the Earth, D. J. Stevenson, Ed., vol. 9 of Treatise on Geophysics, chapter 9.01, p. 111, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, New York, NY, USA, 2007, Editor-in-chief G. Schubert. View at Google Scholar
  3. W. Thomson, “On the secular cooling of the Earth,” Philosophical Magazine Series 4, vol. 25, no. 165, pp. 1–14, 1863. View at Google Scholar
  4. L. Kelvin, “The age of the earth as an abode fitted for life,” Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution, 1897. View at Google Scholar
  5. J. D. Burchfield, Lord Kelvin and the Age of the Earth, Science History Publications, New York, NY, USA, 1975.
  6. G. B. Dalrymple, The Age of the Earth, Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif, USA, 1991.
  7. E. Rutherford, Radio-Activity, Cambridge Physical Series, University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2nd edition, 1905.
  8. G. F. Davies, “Thermal evolution of the mantle,” in Evolution of the Earth, D. J. Stevenson, Ed., vol. 9 of Treatise on Geophysics, chapter 9.08, pp. 197–216, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, New York, NY, USA, 2007, Editor-in-chief G. Schubert. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. N. H. Sleep, “Plate tectonics through time,” in Evolution of the Earth, D. J. Stevenson, Ed., vol. 9 of Treatise on Geophysics, chapter 9.06, pp. 145–169, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, New York, NY, USA, 2007, Editor-in-chief G. Schubert. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. C. L. Cowan, F. Reines, F. B. Harrison, H. W. Kruse, and A. D. McGuire, “Detection of the free neutrino: a confirmation,” Science, vol. 124, no. 3212, pp. 103–104, 1956. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. G. Eder, “Terrestrial neutrinos,” Nuclear Physics, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 657–662, 1966. View at Google Scholar
  12. G. Marx, “Geophysics by neutrinos,” Czechoslovak Journal of Physics B, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1471–1479, 1969. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. G. Marx and I. Lux, “Hunting for soft antineutrinos,” Acta Physica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, vol. 28, no. 1–3, pp. 63–70, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. C. Avilez, G. Marx, and B. Fuentes, “Earth as a source of antineutrinos,” Physical Review D, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 1116–1117, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. M. Krauss, S. L. Glashow, and D. N. Schramm, “Antineutrino astronomy and geophysics,” Nature, vol. 310, no. 5974, pp. 191–198, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. S. Raghavan, S. Schoenert, S. Enomoto, J. Shirai, F. Suekane, and A. Suzuki, “Measuring the global radioactivity in the earth by multidetector antineutrino spectroscopy,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 635–638, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. G. Rothschild, M. C. Chen, and F. P. Calaprice, “Antineutrino geophysics with liquid scintillator detectors,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 1083–1086, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. T. Araki, S. Enomoto, K. Furuno et al., “Experimental investigation of geologically produced antineutrinos with KamLAND,” Nature, vol. 436, no. 7050, pp. 499–503, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  19. A. Gando, Y. Gando, K. Ichimura et al., “Partial radiogenic heat model for Earth revealed by geoneutrino measurements,” Nature Geoscience, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 647–651, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  20. G. Bellini, J. Benzigerm, S. Bonettih et al., “Observation of geo-neutrinos,” Physics Letters B, vol. 687, no. 4-5, pp. 4299–5304, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  21. M. C. Chen, “Geo-neutrinos in SNO+,” Earth, Moon and Planets, vol. 99, no. 1–4, pp. 221–228, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. Kobayashi and Y. Fukao, “The Earth as an antineutrino star,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 633–636, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. Neutrino Sciences 2005, Neutrino Geophysics, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, December 2005, http://www.phys.hawaii.edu/~sdye/hnsc.html.
  24. Neutrino Sciences 2007, Deep Ocean Anti-Neutrino Observatory Workshop, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, March 2007, http://www.phys.hawaii.edu/~sdye/hano.html.
  25. Neutrino Geoscience 2008 at SNOLAB, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, September 2008, http://geonu.snolab.ca.
  26. Neutrino Geoscience 2010 at Gran Sasso National Laboratory—Italy, October, 2010, http://geoscience.lngs.infn.it/.
  27. Neutrino Geoscience Workshop, Deadwood, South Dakota, June 2011, http://www.dsu.edu/research/CETUP/2011.html.
  28. Geoneutrinos: A new tool for the study of the solid Earth I, Session U41F at AGU 2006 Joint Assembly, Baltimore, Md, USA, May 25, 2006.
  29. S. T. Dye, Ed., Neutrino Geophysics: Proceedings of Neutrino Sciences 2005, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. C. Lan, SNO+ and geoneutrino physics [M.S. thesis], Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, 2007.
  31. S. Enomoto, Neutrino geophysics and observation of geo-neutrinos at KamLAND [Ph.D. thesis], Tohoku University, 2005.
  32. W. F. McDonough, “Geophysics: mapping the Earth's engine,” Science, vol. 317, no. 5842, pp. 1177–1178, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. T. Dye, W. F. McDonough, and J. Mahoney, “Geoneutrino measurements and models investigate deep Earth,” Eos, vol. 89, no. 44, pp. 433–434, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. W. F. McDonough, J. G. Learned, and S. T. Dye, “The many uses of electron antineutrinos,” Physics Today, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 46–51, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. A. Ananthaswamy, “Messengers from the underworld,” New Scientist, vol. 214, no. 2862, pp. 32–35, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  36. S. Enomoto, E. Ohtani, K. Inoue, and A. Suzuki, “Neutrino geophysics with KamLAND and future prospects,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 258, no. 1-2, pp. 147–159, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. G. Fiorentini, M. Lissia, and F. Mantovani, “Geo-neutrinos and earth's interior,” Physics Reports, vol. 453, no. 5-6, pp. 117–172, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. T. Dye, “Geo-neutrinos and silicate earth enrichment of U and Th,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 297, no. 1-2, pp. 1–9, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. S. T. Dye, “Geoneutrinos and the radioactive power of the Earth,” Reviews of Geophysics, vol. 50, no. 3, Article ID RG3007, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. J.-C. Mareschal, C. Jaupart, C. Phaneuf, and C. Perry, “Geoneutrinos and the energy budget of the Earth,” Journal of Geodynamics, vol. 54, pp. 43–54, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. C. Jaupart, S. Labrosse, and J. C. Mareschal, “Temperatures, heat and energy in the mantle of the Earth,” in Mantle Dynamics, D. Bercovici, Ed., vol. 7 of Treatise on Geophysics, chapter 7.06, pp. 253–303, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, New York, NY, USA, 2007, editor-in-chief G. Schubert. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. J. Korenaga, “Urey ratio and the structure and evolution of Earth's mantle,” Reviews of Geophysics, vol. 46, no. 2, Article ID RG2007, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. T. Lay, J. Hernlund, and B. A. Buffett, “Core-mantle boundary heat flow,” Nature Geoscience, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 25–32, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. G. Sclater, C. Jaupart, and D. Galson, “The heat flow through oceanic and continental crust and the heat loss of the earth,” Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 269–311, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. G. F. Davies, “Review of oceanic and global heat flow estimates,” Reviews of Geophysics, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 718–722, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. H. N. Pollack, S. J. Hurter, and J. R. Johnson, “Heat flow from the Earth's interior: analysis of the global data set,” Reviews of Geophysics, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 267–280,, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. J. H. Davies and D. R. Davies, “Earth's surface heat flux,” Solid Earth, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 5–24, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. C. A. Stein and S. Stein, “A model for the global variation in oceanic depth and heat flow with lithospheric age,” Nature, vol. 359, no. 6391, pp. 123–129, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A. M. Hofmeister and R. E. Criss, “Earth's heat flux revised and linked to chemistry,” Tectonophysics, vol. 395, no. 3-4, pp. 159–177, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. R. Von Herzen, E. E. Davis, A. T. Fisher, C. A. Stein, and H. N. Pollack, “Comments on “Earth's heat flux revised and linked to chemistry” by A.M. Hofmeister and R.E. Criss,” Tectonophysics, vol. 409, no. 1–4, pp. 193–198, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. Wei and D. Sandwell, “Estimates of heat flow from Cenozoic seafloor using global depth and age data,” Tectonophysics, vol. 417, no. 3-4, pp. 325–335, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. T. W. Becker, C. P. Conrad, B. Buffett, and R. D. M. Müller, “Past and present sea floor age distributions and the temporal evolution of plate tectonic heat transport,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 278, no. 3-4, pp. 233–242, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  53. R. L. Rudnick and S. Gao, “Composition of the continental crust,” in The Crust, R. L. Rudnick, Ed., vol. 3 of Treatise on Geochemistry, chapter 3.01, pp. 10–6408, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Oxford, UK, 2003, Editors-in-chief H. D. Holland and K. K. Turekian. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. F. Nimmo, “Energetics of the core,” in Core Dynamics, P. Olson, Ed., vol. 8 of Treatise on Geophysics, chapter 8.02, pp. 31–65, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, New York, NY, USA, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  55. W. F. McDonough and S. Sun, “The composition of the Earth,” Chemical Geology, vol. 120, no. 3- 4, pp. 223–253, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. G. J. Wasserburg, G. J. F. Macdonald, F. Hoyle, and W. A. Fowler, “Relative contributions of uranium, thorium, and potassium to heat production in the earth,” Science, vol. 143, no. 3605, pp. 465–467, 1964. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. W. F. McDonough, “Compositional model for the Earth's core,” in The Mantle and Core, Treatise on Geochemistry, R. W. Carlson, Ed., vol. 2, chapter 2.15, pp. 547–568, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Oxford, UK, 2003, Editors-in-chief H. D. Holland and K. K. Turekian. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. S. R. Hart and A. Zindler, “In search of a bulk-Earth composition,” Chemical Geology, vol. 57, no. 34, pp. 247–267, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  59. H. Palme and H. S. C. O'Neill, “Cosmochemical estimates of mantle composition,” in Treatise on Geochemistry, R. W. Carlson, Ed., vol. 2, chapter 2.01, pp. 1380–1308, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Oxford, UK, 2003, Editors-in-chief H. D. Holland and K. K. Turekian. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  60. R. Arevalo Jr., W. F. McDonough, and M. Luong, “The K/U ratio of the silicate Earth: insights into mantle composition, structure and thermal evolution,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 278, no. 3-4, pp. 361–369, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. T. Lyubetskaya and J. Korenaga, “Chemical composition of Earth's primitive mantle and its variance: 1. Method and results,” Journal of Geophysical Research B, vol. 112, no. 3, Article ID B03211, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. H. S. C. O'Neill and H. Palme, “Collisional erosion and the non-chondritic composition of the terrestrial planets,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, vol. 366, no. 1883, pp. 4205–4238, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M. Javoy, “Chemical Earth models,” Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, vol. 329, no. 8, pp. 537–555, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  64. M. Javoy, E. Kaminski, F. Guyot et al., “The chemical composition of the Earth: enstatite chondrite models,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 293, no. 3-4, pp. 259–268, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  65. D. L. Turcotte, G. Schubert, and Geodynamics, Applications of Continuum Physics to Geological Problems, Cambridge University Press, 2nd edition, 2002.
  66. R. K. Workman and S. R. Hart, “Major and trace element composition of the depleted MORB mantle (DMM),” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 231, no. 1-2, pp. 53–72, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. V. J. M. Salters and A. Stracke, “Composition of the depleted mantle,” Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, vol. 5, no. 5, Article ID Q05B07, 27 pages, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  68. R. Arevalo Jr. and W. F. McDonough, “Chemical variations and regional diversity observed in MORB,” Chemical Geology, vol. 271, no. 1-2, pp. 70–85, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. O. Šrámek, W. F. McDonough, E. S. Kite, V. Lekić, S. T. Dye, and S. Zhong, “Geophysical and geochemical constraints on geoneutrino fluxes from Earth's mantle,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters.
  70. G. Schubert, D. L. Turcotte, and P. Olson, Mantle Convection in Earth and Planets, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2001.
  71. D. Bercovici, “Mantle dynamics past, present and future: an introduction and overview,” in Mantle Dynamics, Treatise on Geo-physics, D. Bercovici, Ed., vol. 7, chapter 7.01, p. 130, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, New York, NY, USA, 2007, Editor-in-chief G. Schubert. View at Google Scholar
  72. G. F. Davies, Dynamic Earth: Plates, Plumes and Mantle Convection, Cambridge University Press, 1999.
  73. U. Christensen, “Thermal evolution models for the Earth,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 2995–3007, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  74. J. Korenaga, “Archean geodynamics and the thermal evolution of earth,” in Archean Geodynamics and Environments, K. Benn, J. C. Mareschal, and K. Condie, Eds., vol. 164 of AGU Geophysical Monograph, p. 732, American Geophysical Union, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  75. G. F. Davies, “Effect of plate bending on the Urey ratio and the thermal evolution of the mantle,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 287, no. 3-4, pp. 513–518, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  76. S. Labrosse and C. Jaupart, “Thermal evolution of the Earth: secular changes and uctuations of plate characteristics,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 260, no. 3-4, pp. 465–481, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  77. P. G. Silver and M. D. Behn, “Intermittent plate tectonics,” Science, vol. 319, no. 5859, pp. 85–88, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. A. Lenardic, C. M. Cooper, and L. Moresi, “A note on continents and the Earth's Urey ratio,” Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol. 188, no. 1-2, pp. 127–130, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  79. J. W. Crowley, M. Gérault, and R. J. O'Connell, “On the relative in uence of heat and water transport on planetary dynamics,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 310, no. 34, pp. 380–388, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  80. T. Nakagawa and P. J. Tackley, “Influence of magmatism on mantle cooling, surface heat flow and Urey ratio,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 329-330, pp. 1–10, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  81. A. W. Hofmann, “Mantle geochemistry: the message from oceanic volcanism,” Nature, vol. 385, no. 6613, pp. 219–229, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  82. R. D. van der Hilst, S. Widiyantoro, and E. R. Engdahl, “Evidence for deep mantle circulation from global tomography,” Nature, vol. 386, no. 6625, pp. 578–584, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  83. Y. Fukao, S. Widiyantoro, and M. Obayashi, “Stagnant slabs in the upper and lower mantle transition region,” Reviews of Geophysics, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 291–323, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  84. T. Lay, Q. Williams, and E. J. Garnero, “The core-mantle boundary layer and deep Earth dynamics,” Nature, vol. 392, no. 6675, pp. 461–468, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  85. E. J. Garnero and A. K. McNamara, “Structure and dynamics of Earth's lower mantle,” Science, vol. 320, no. 5876, pp. 626–628, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  86. A. K. McNamara, E. J. Garnero, and S. Rost, “Tracking deep mantle reservoirs with ultra-low velocity zones,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 299, no. 1-2, pp. 1–9, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  87. L. Wen, P. Silver, D. James, and R. Kuehnel, “Seismic evidence for a thermo-chemical boundary at the base of the Earth's mantle,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 189, no. 3-4, pp. 141–153, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  88. W.-J. Su and A. M. Dziewonski, “Simultaneous inversion for 3-D variations in shear and bulk velocity in the mantle,” Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol. 100, no. 1–4, pp. 135–156, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  89. M. J. Walter and R. G. Tronnes, “Early Earth dierentiation,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 225, no. 3-4, pp. 253–269, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  90. C.-T. A. Lee, Q. Z. Yin, A. Lenardic, A. Agranier, C. J. O'Neill, and N. Thiagarajan, “Trace-element composition of Fe-rich residual liquids formed by fractional crystallization: implications for the Hadean magma ocean,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 71, no. 14, pp. 3601–3615, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  91. V. C. Bennett, A. D. Brandon, and A. P. Nutman, “Coupled 142Nd-143Nd isotopic evidence for Hadean mantle dynamics,” Science, vol. 318, no. 5858, pp. 1907–1910, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  92. S. Labrosse, J. W. Hernlund, and N. Coltice, “A crystallizing dense magma ocean at the base of the Earth's mantle,” Nature, vol. 450, no. 7171, pp. 866–869, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  93. J. Ritsema, H. J. van Heijst, and J. H. Woodhouse, “Complex shear wave velocity structure imaged beneath Africa and Iceland,” Science, vol. 286, no. 5446, pp. 1925–1928, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  94. J. Ritsema, H. J. van Heijst, and J. H. Woodhouse, “Global transition zone tomography,” Journal Of Geophysical Research, vol. 109, Article ID B02302, 14 pages, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  95. A. L. Bull, A. K. McNamara, and J. Ritsema, “Synthetic tomography of plume clusters and thermochemical piles,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 278, no. 3-4, pp. 152–162, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  96. M. G. Jackson and R. W. Carlson, “An ancient recipe for ood-basalt genesis,” Nature, vol. 476, pp. 316–319, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  97. M. Willbold, T. Elliott, and S. Moorbath, “The tungsten isotopic composition of the Earth's mantle before the terminal bombardment,” Nature, vol. 477, no. 7363, pp. 195–198, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  98. P. H. Warren, “Stable-isotopic anomalies and the accretionary assemblage of the Earth and Mars: A subordinate role for carbonaceous chondrites,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 311, no. 1-2, pp. 93–100, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  99. C. Fitoussi and B. Bourdon, “Silicon isotope evidence against an enstatite chondrite Earth,” Science, vol. 335, no. 6075, pp. 1477–1480, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  100. I. H. Campbell and H. St. C. O'Neill, “Evidence against a chondritic Earth,” Nature, vol. 483, no. 7391, pp. 553–558, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  101. J. Zhang, N. Dauphas, A. M. Davis, I. Leya, and A. Fedkin, “The proto-Earth as a significant source of lunar material,” Nature Geoscience, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 251–255, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  102. M. Murakami, Y. Ohishi, N. Hirao, and K. Hirose, “A perovskitic lower mantle inferred from high-pressure, high-temperature sound velocity data,” Nature, vol. 485, no. 7396, pp. 90–94, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  103. D. Abbott, L. Burgess, J. Longhi, and W. H. F. Smith, “An empirical thermal history of the Earth's upper mantle,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 99, no. 7, pp. 13835–13850, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  104. W. F. McDonough and R. Arevalo Jr., “Uncertainties in the composition of Earth, its core and silicate sphere,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 136, no. 2, Article ID 022006, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  105. C. K. Gessmann and B. J. Wood, “Potassium in the Earth's core?” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 200, no. 1-2, pp. 63–78, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  106. V. R. Murthy, W. van Westrenen, and Y. Fei, “Experimental evidence that potassium is a substantial radioactive heat source in planetary cores,” Nature, vol. 423, no. 6936, pp. 163–165, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  107. V. R. Murthy, “Radioactivity of the Earth and the case for potassium in the Earth's core,” Earth, Moon, Planets, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 23–32, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  108. J. M. Herndon, “Substructure of the inner core of the Earth,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 646–648, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  109. J. R. Lancelot, A. Vitrac, and C. J. Allegre, “The Oklo natural reactor: age and evolution studies by U—Pb and Rb—Sr systematics,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 189–196, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  110. R. J. D. Meijer and W. van Westrenen, “The feasibility and implications of nuclear georeactors in Earth's core-mantle boundary region,” South African Journal of Science, vol. 104, no. 3-4, pp. 111–118, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  111. J. M. Herndon, “Nuclear georeactor origin of oceanic basalt 3He/4He, evidence, and implications,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 100, no. 6, pp. 3047–3050, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  112. G. Audi and A. Wapstra, “The update to the atomic mass evaluation,” Nuclear Physics A, vol. 595, no. 4, pp. 409–480, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  113. R. B. Firestone and V. S. Shirley, Table of Isotopes, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 8th edition, 1996.
  114. G. Fiorentini, A. Ianni, G. Korga et al., “Nuclear physics for geo-neutrino studies,” Physical Review C, vol. 81, no. 3, Article ID 034602, 9 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  115. B. Pontecorvo, “Mesonium and antimesonium,” Soviet Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 429–431, 1958. View at Google Scholar
  116. G. L. Fogli, E. Lisi, A. Marrone, A. Palazzo, and A. M. Rotunno, “Evidence of θ13>0 from global neutrino data analysis,” Physical Review D, vol. 84, no. 5, Article ID 053007, 7 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  117. The Daya Bay Collaboration, “Observation of electron-antineutrino disappearance at Daya Bay,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 108, no. 17, Article ID 171803, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  118. RENO Collaboration, “Observation of reactor electron antineutrinos disappearance in the RENO experiment,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 108, no. 19, Article ID 191802, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  119. K. Nakamura and P. D. Group, “Review of particle physics,” Journal of Physics G, vol. 37, no. 7, Article ID 075021, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  120. C. L. Cowan, F. Reines, F. B. Harrison, E. C. Anderson, and F. N. Hayes, “Large liquid scintillation detectors,” Physical Review, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 493–494, 1953. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  121. F. Reines and C. L. Cowan, “A proposed experiment to detect the free neutrino,” Physical Review, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 492–493, 1953. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  122. J. Learned, S. Dye, and S. Pakvasa, “Neutrino geophysics conference introduction,” Earth, Moon, Planets, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  123. P. Vogel and J. F. Beacom, “Angular distribution of neutron inverse beta decay, v¯e+pe++n,” Physical Review D, vol. 60, no. 5, Article ID 053003, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  124. F. Mantovani, L. Carmignani, G. Fiorentini, and M. Lissia, “Antineutrinos from Earth: a reference model and its uncertainties,” Physical Review D, vol. 69, no. 1, Article ID 013001, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  125. A. M. Dziewonski and D. L. Anderson, “Preliminary reference Earth model,” Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 297–356, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  126. C. Bassin, G. Laske, and G. Masters, “The current limits of resolution for surface wave tomography in North America,” Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol. 81, no. 48, p. F897, 2000, http://igppweb.ucsd.edu/~gabi/crust2.html. View at Google Scholar
  127. F. Reines, H. S. Gurr, and H. W. Sobel, “Detection of v¯ee scattering,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 315–318, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  128. J. G. Learned, “The mini-Time-Cube—A portable directional anti-neutrino detector,” presentation at Advances in Neutrino Technology 2011, Philadephia, Pa, USA, 2011.
  129. G. Alimonti, C. Arpesella, H. Back et al., “The Borexino detector at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics, vol. 600, no. 3, pp. 568–593, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  130. M. Wurm, J. F. Beacomc, L. B. Bezrukovd et al., “The next-generation liquid-scintillator neutrino observatory LENA,” Astroparticle Physics, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 685–732, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  131. N. Tolich, Y.-D. Chan, C. A. Currat et al., “A geoneutrino experiment at Homestake,” Earth, Moon, Planets, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 229–240, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  132. I. R. Barabanov, G. Y. Novikova, V. V. Sinev, and E. A. Yanovich, “Research of the natural neutrino uxes by use of large volume scintillation detector at Baksan,” http://arxiv.org/abs/0908.1466.
  133. S. Dye, E. Guillian, J. G. Learned et al., “Earth radioactivity measurements with a deep ocean anti-neutrino observatory,” Earth, Moon, Planets, vol. 99, no. 1–4, pp. 241–252, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  134. J. G. Learned, S. T. Dye, and S. Pakvasa, “Hanohano: a deep ocean anti-neutrino detector for unique neutrino physics and geophysics studies,” in Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Neutrino Telescopes, Venice, Italy, March 2007.
  135. Y. Wang, “Daya Bay experiment and its future,” presentation at XIV International Workshop on Neutrino Telescopes, Venice, Italy, March 2011, http://neutrino.pd.infn.it/Neutel2011/.
  136. G. Fiorentini, M. Lissia, F. Mantovani, and R. Vannucci, “How much uranium is in the Earth? Predictions for geoneutrinos at KamLAND,” Physical Review D, vol. 72, no. 3, Article ID 033017, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  137. G. Fiorentini, M. Lissia, F. Mantovani, and R. Vannucci, “Geo-neutrinos: a new probe of Earth's interior,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 238, no. 1-2, pp. 235–247, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  138. K. A. Hochmuth, F. V. Feilitzsch, B. D. Fields et al., “Probing the Earth's interior with a large volume liquid scintillator detector,” Astroparticle Physics, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 21–29, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  139. E. S. Kite and V. Lekic, “Feasibility of mantle radiogenic power determination with geoneutrinos,” unpublished.
  140. M. Coltorti, R. Borasoa, F. Mantovani et al., “U and Th content in the Central Apennines continental crust: a contribution to the determination of the geo-neutrinos ux at LNGS,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 75, no. 9, pp. 2271–2294, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  141. W. M. White and E. M. Klein, “The oceanic crust,” in The Crust, R. L. Rudnick, Ed., vol. 3 of Treatise on Geochemistry, chapter 14, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Oxford, UK, 2nd edition, 2013, editors-in-chief H. D. Holland and K. K. Turekian. View at Google Scholar
  142. T. Plank, “The oceanic crust,” in The Crust, R. L. Rudnick, Ed., vol. 3 of Treatise on Geochemistry, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Oxford, UK, 2nd edition, 2013, editors-in-chief H. D. Holland and K. K. Turekian. View at Google Scholar
  143. Y. Huang, V. Chubakov, F. Mantovani, W. F. McDonough, and R. L. Rudnick, “A reference Earth model for the heat producing elements and associated geoneutrino flux,” submitted to Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems.
  144. F. Deschamps, E. Kaminski, and P. J. Tackley, “A deep mantle origin for the primitive signature of ocean island basalt,” Nature Geoscience, vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 879–882, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  145. P. J. Tackley, “Dynamics and evolution of the deep mantle resulting from thermal, chemical, phase and melting effects,” Earth-Science Reviews, vol. 110, no. 1–4, pp. 1–25, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  146. G. Fiorentini, G. L. Fogli, E. Lisi, F. Mantovani, and A. M. Rotunno, “Mantle geoneutrinos in KamLAND and Borexino,” Physical Review D, vol. 86, no. 3, Article ID 033004, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  147. G. L. Fogli, E. Lisi, A. Palazzo, and A. M. Rotunno, “Combined analysis of KamLAND and Borexino neutrino signals from Th and U decays in the Earth's interior,” Physical Review D, vol. 82, no. 9, Article ID 093006, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  148. D. L. Anderson, The New Theory of the Earth, Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  149. C. J. Allègre, J. P. Poirier, E. Humler, and A. W. Hofmann, “The chemical composition of the Earth,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 134, no. 3-4, pp. 515–526, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  150. B. Fields and K. Hochmuth, “Imaging the Earth's interior: the angular distribution of terrestrial neutrinos,” Earth, Moon, Planets, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 155–181, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  151. A. Suzuki, “Physics in next geoneutrino detectors,” Earth, Moon, Planets, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 359–368, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  152. K. A. Hochmuth, “The angular distribution of geoneutrinos,” Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 293–295, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  153. M. Apollonio, A. Baldini, C. Bemporad et al., “Determination of neutrino incoming direction in the CHOOZ experiment and its application to supernova explosion location by scintillator detectors,” Physical Review D, vol. 61, no. 1, Article ID 012001, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  154. M. Batygov, “On the possibility of directional analysis for geo-neutrinos,” Earth, Moon, Planets, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 183–192, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  155. G. R. Jocher, D. A. Bondy, B. M. Dobbs et al., “Theoretical antineutrino detection, direction and ranging at long distances,” Physics Reports. In press.