Research Article  Open Access
LiNa Gao, YaHui Chen, HuaRong Wei, FuHu Liu, "Speed of Sound Parameter from RHIC and LHC HeavyIon Data", Advances in High Energy Physics, vol. 2013, Article ID 450247, 8 pages, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/450247
Speed of Sound Parameter from RHIC and LHC HeavyIon Data
Abstract
In framework of combing the participantspectator model and the Landau hydrodynamic model, the pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles produced in heavyion (or nucleusnucleus) collisions at RHIC and LHC energies are described by a modified Landau hydrodynamic model, where the Landau hydrodynamic model is applied to the target/projectile spectators and the target/projectile participants, respectively. The modeling results are in agreement with the PHOBOS and ALICE experimental data. Then, the values of square speed of sound () for the participants and spectators can be obtained from the widths of charged particle pseudorapidity distributions. Some features of for different centralities and centerofmass energies are obtained too.
1. Introduction
High energy collisions are an important research topic in fields of particle and nuclear physics. Many charged and neutral particles are produced in the collisions. Particularly, the Relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and the large hadron collider (LHC) have been opening a new epoch for high energy heavyion collider. Many experimental results are reported and many theoretical models are proposed to describe the data.
Among the theoretical models, the Landau hydrodynamic model [1–4] is one of the most useful treatment methods in high energy heavyion (or nucleusnucleus) collisions [5–13]. We hope to use the Landau hydrodynamic model to analyze experimental data measured in nucleusnucleus collisions at RHIC [6, 14–18] and LHC energies [19–21]. The Landau hydrodynamic model was proposed at lower energy. In [13], the model is revised for RHIC energies. In [22, 23], it is shown that the model in the frame of quark participants works well from the alternating gradient synchrotron (AGS) to the RHIC energies. We notice that these revision and application of the Landau hydrodynamic model are in a narrow or central rapidity region. Contributions of leading nucleons are not included in these studies [13, 22, 23].
To analyze a wider pseudorapidity distribution, we need to consider the contributions of leading nucleons. In the framework of participantspectator model [24], the spectators are one of the main sources of leading nucleons. We may apply Landau hydrodynamic model to the target/projectile spectators and the target/projectile participants, respectively. Then, we can use a modified Landau hydrodynamic model which contains four components to describe wider pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles produced in AuAu and CuCu collisions at RHIC energy [25–27] and PbPb collisions at LHC energy [19–21]. Because the square speed of sound parameter () is related to the width of pseudorapidity distribution, we can obtain naturally the values of .
In this paper, to extract the parameter , a modified Landau hydrodynamic model is introduced in Section 2. Comparisons of modeling results with experimental data of PHOBOS [27] and ALICE Collaborations [21] and the obtained parameter values are given in Section 3. Finally, we give conclusions of the present work in Section 4.
2. The Model
According to the participantspectator model [24], the overlapping regions between the target and projectile nuclei in collisions are called the participants, and the other parts outside the overlapping regions are called the spectators. Then, we divide the interacting system of nucleusnucleus collisions into four parts (sources). From low rapidity region to a high one, the four sources are a target spectator, a target participant, a projectile participant, and a projectile spectator. Because leading nucleons in the overlapping regions contribute large pseudorapidities, we may consider these leading nucleons not belonging to the participants. Instead, they belong to the spectators. The participants contain only the nonleading nucleons in the overlapping regions. The spectators contain in fact the other parts outside the overlapping regions and the leading nucleons in the overlapping regions.
For each source, we can use the Landau hydrodynamic model to describe rapidity () or pseudorapidity () distribution. Generally speaking, the rapidity distribution and the pseudorapidity distribution are not exactly equal to each other. From the rapidity/pseudorapidity distribution to pseudorapidity/rapidity distribution, we need a conversion. However, at very high energy such as RHIC and LHC energies, we use approximately which renders a small dispersion in analyzing the experimental data [28].
According to the Landau hydrodynamic model [1–4], the evolvement of interacting system in nucleusnucleus collisions can be described by the hydrodynamic method. After a series of calculated treatments, the pseudorapidity distribution of charged particles produced in the collisions can be described by a Gaussian function [3, 12, 13, 29–31]: where denotes the square of distribution width, is a normalization constant, is the centerofmass energy per nucleon pair in the units of GeV, is the mass of a proton in the units of GeV, and is the square speed of sound.
It should be noticed that Landau considered originally pseudorapidity, and the “modified” form by Shuryak introduced rapidity instead [3, 29]. The rapidity was also introduced by Milekhin [32] in the form of , where is the beam energy in the units of GeV in fixed target experiments. Considering at very high energy, we do not need to distinguish between and at RHIC and LHC energies. The Gaussian function is not only an approximation of the original Landau distribution [29–31], but also a close representation of the modified distribution discussed in [13].
Substituting (2) in (1), we have
Then, we can use (3) to describe the pseudorapidity distribution of charged particles produced in a given source. For a distribution in the full phase space, we need a modified Landau hydrodynamic model which contains four components corresponding to four sources in collisions [33]. The four sources are the target spectator/participant and projectile participant/spectator, respectively. The participants contain the nonleading nucleons in the overlapping regions, and the spectators contain the nucleons outside the overlapping regions and the leading nucleons in the overlapping regions.
As a main free parameter, the (square) speed of sound is related to the width of pseudorapidity distribution due to (2). If we can describe the particle pseudorapidity distribution corresponding to a given source, then the square speed of sound of the source can be obtained. In fact,
3. Comparison with Experimental Data
The pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles produced in AuAu collisions at , 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV are presented in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The circles represent the experimental data with different centralities measured by the PHOBOS collaboration [27], and the curves are our results calculated by the modified Landau hydrodynamic model. In the calculation, the values of are obtained by fitting the experimental data. The obtained values of and /dof ( per degree of freedom) are given in Table 1. One can see that the model describes the experimental data at RHIC energies. In the range of errors, the values of for the participants and spectators are the same. Both values of for the participants and spectators do not depend obviously on the centrality and in the considered energy range.

The pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles produced in CuCu collisions at , 62.4, and 200 GeV are presented in Figures 5, 6, and 7, respectively. The circles represent the experimental data with different centralities measured by the PHOBOS collaboration [27], and the curves are our results calculated by the modified Landau hydrodynamic model. The obtained values of and /dof are given in Table 2. One can see again that the model describes the experimental data. The values of for the participants and spectators are the same in the range of errors. Both values of for the participants and spectators do not depend obviously on the centrality and at RHIC energies.

Figure 8 shows the pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles produced in PbPb collisions at TeV. The circles represent the experimental data of the ALICE collaboration [21], and the curves are our results calculated by the modified Landau hydrodynamic model. The obtained values of and /dof are given in Table 3. Once more the model describes the experimental data. The values of for the participants and spectators at LHC energy are the same, and they are the same as those at RHIC energies in the range of errors. Both the values of for the participants and spectators do not depend obviously on the centrality.

From Figures 1–8, one can see that the modified Landau hydrodynamic model proposed by us is in agreement with the experimental data at RHIC and LHC energies. In the model, both the contributions of participants and spectators (or nonleading nucleons and leading nucleons) are included. We notice that in recent works [21, 34] both the LandauCarruthers Gaussian [11, 12] and the LandauWong function [13] overestimate/underestimate the distributions in central/forward rapidity regions. If we consider the contributions of leading nucleons in the LandauCarruthers Gaussian [11, 12] and in the LandauWong function [13], respectively, both the situations will change to be better.
The values of obtained by us are in agreement with the hadron resonance (HRG) gas model [35, 36]. According to the HRG model, the existing region of hadron resonances including the pions has a large (~0.23), and the existing region of hadron resonances excluding the pions has a small (~0.12) at low temperature (~85 MeV). The two regions trend approximately the same one (~0.14–0.15) at high temperature (~190 MeV). In [37], based on the lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) theory, the values of and other parameters are obtained in the temperature range from 125 MeV to 400 MeV. According to [37], the values of are 0.12–0.16 at 125 MeV and 0.31 at 400 MeV. One can see that these values are in agreement with our results in the range of errors.
We notice that the errors for in the present work are universally large. This renders that is not a sensitive quantity. As an intensive quantity, is a reflection of the ratios of pressure to energy density or entropy to specific heat in the participant and spectator regions and is related to the pseudorapidity distribution width which depends on the rapidity shifts of the participants and spectators.
The same for the participants and spectators and for different centrality bins at RHIC and LHC energies reflect the same matter density at the freezeout stage of particle production. In collisions, the spectators have nearly a normal nuclear density, and the participants have a much larger density than the normal nuclear one. After collisions, the participants expand rapidly in volume and reach the normal nuclear density. Then, the participants produce many finalstate particles. For the participants, to expand to the normal nuclear density and then to produce finalstate particles are a fact that does not depend on centrality and energy at RHIC and LHC energies.
4. Conclusions
From the above discussions, we obtain following conclusions.(a)The pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles produced in nucleusnucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC energies can be described by the modified Landau hydrodynamic model. The modeling results are in agreement with the PHOBOS experimental data of AuAu collisions at , 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV and CuCu collisions at , 62.4, and 200 GeV, as well as ALICE experimental data of PbPb collisions at TeV.(b)In the concerned energy range from 19.6 GeV to 2.76 TeV, the values of for the participants and spectators are the same in the range of errors and do not depend obviously on the centrality and .(c)The values of obtained in the present work are in agreement with the results of the HRG model and the lattice QCD theory. To extract of interacting system, our work provides a new method which bases on the width of particle pseudorapidity distribution.
Conflict of Interests
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.
Acknowledgments
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant no. 10975095, the China National Fundamental Fund of Personnel Training under Grant no. J1103210, the Open Research Subject of the Chinese Academy of Sciences LargeScale Scientific Facility under Grant no. 2060205, and the Shanxi Scholarship Council of China.
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Copyright © 2013 LiNa Gao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.