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Advances in High Energy Physics
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 361587, 6 pages
Research Article

Quantum Haplodynamics, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy

1Physik-Department, Universität München, 80333 Munich, Germany
2Institute for Advanced Study, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798
3High Energy Physics Group, Department of ECM and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 647, Catalonia, 08028 Barcelona, Spain

Received 25 June 2014; Accepted 4 August 2014; Published 31 August 2014

Academic Editor: Frank Filthaut

Copyright © 2014 Harald Fritzsch and Joan Solà. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The publication of this article was funded by SCOAP3.


In quantum haplodynamics (QHD) the weak bosons, quarks, and leptons are bound states of fundamental constituents, denoted as haplons. The confinement scale of the associated gauge group is of the order of  TeV. One scalar state has zero haplon number and is the resonance observed at the LHC. In addition, there exist new bound states of haplons with no counterpart in the SM, having a mass of the order of 0.5 TeV up to a few TeV. In particular, a neutral scalar state with haplon number 4 is stable and can provide the dark matter in the universe. The QHD, QCD, and QED couplings can unify at the Planck scale. If this scale changes slowly with cosmic time, all of the fundamental couplings, the masses of the nucleons and of the DM particles, including the cosmological term (or vacuum energy density), will evolve with time. This could explain the dark energy of the universe.