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Advances in High Energy Physics
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 376982, 7 pages
Research Article

Hawking-Unruh Hadronization and Strangeness Production in High Energy Collisions

1Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, 95100 Catania, Italy
2INFN Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, 95100 Catania, Italy
3PH Department, TH Unit, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland
4Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Germany

Received 8 January 2014; Accepted 16 April 2014; Published 11 May 2014

Academic Editor: Piero Nicolini

Copyright © 2014 Paolo Castorina and Helmut Satz. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The publication of this article was funded by SCOAP3.


The thermal multihadron production observed in different high energy collisions poses many basic problems: why do even elementary, and hadron-hadron, collisions show thermal behaviour? Why is there in such interactions a suppression of strange particle production? Why does the strangeness suppression almost disappear in relativistic heavy ion collisions? Why in these collisions is the thermalization time less than  fm/c? We show that the recently proposed mechanism of thermal hadron production through Hawking-Unruh radiation can naturally answer the previous questions. Indeed, the interpretation of quark (q)-antiquark ( ) pairs production, by the sequential string breaking, as tunneling through the event horizon of colour confinement leads to thermal behavior with a universal temperature,  Mev, related to the quark acceleration, a, by . The resulting temperature depends on the quark mass and then on the content of the produced hadrons, causing a deviation from full equilibrium and hence a suppression of strange particle production in elementary collisions. In nucleus-nucleus collisions, where the quark density is much bigger, one has to introduce an average temperature (acceleration) which dilutes the quark mass effect and the strangeness suppression almost disappears.