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Advances in High Energy Physics
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 530547, 12 pages
Review Article

Initiating the Effective Unification of Black Hole Horizon Area and Entropy Quantization with Quasi-Normal Modes

1Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Scuola Superiore Internazionale di Studi Universitari e Ricerca “Santa Rita”, Centro di Scienze Naturali, Via di Galceti 74, 59100 Prato, Italy
2Institute for Theoretical Physics and Advanced Mathematics Einstein-Galilei (IFM), Via Santa Gonda 14, 59100 Prato, Italy
3International Institute for Applicable Mathematics & Information Sciences (IIAMIS), B.M. Birla Science Centre, Adarsh Nagar, Hyderabad 500463, India
4Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454, Iran
5Research Institute for Astrophysics and Astronomy of Maragha (RIAAM), P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha, Iran
6Department of Physics, California State University Fullerton, 800 North State College Boulevard, Fullerton, CA 92831, USA
7Department of Mathematics, Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID 83725, USA

Received 13 April 2014; Revised 5 July 2014; Accepted 9 July 2014; Published 19 August 2014

Academic Editor: Sally Seidel

Copyright © 2014 C. Corda et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The publication of this article was funded by SCOAP3.


Black hole (BH) area quantization may be the key to unlocking a unifying theory of quantum gravity (QG). Surmounting evidence in the field of BH research continues to support a horizon (surface) area with a discrete and uniformly spaced spectrum, but there is still no general agreement on the level spacing. In the specialized and important BH case study, our objective is to report and examine the pertinent groundbreaking work of the strictly thermal and nonstrictly thermal spectrum level spacing of the BH horizon area quantization with included entropy calculations, which aims to tackle this gigantic problem. In particular, such work exemplifies a series of imperative corrections that eventually permits a BH’s horizon area spectrum to be generalized from strictly thermal to nonstrictly thermal with entropy results, thereby capturing multiple preceding developments by launching an effective unification between them. Moreover, the results are significant because quasi-normal modes (QNM) and “effective states” characterize the transitions between the established levels of the nonstrictly thermal spectrum.