Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in High Energy Physics
Volume 2015, Article ID 231547, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/231547
Review Article

A Review of the Intrinsic Heavy Quark Content of the Nucleon

1SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94301, USA
2Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Université Grenoble-Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3, 53 avenue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble, France
3Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275, USA
4PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, 55099 Mainz, Germany
5Centre for Theoretical and Mathematical Physics and Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700, South Africa
6Nuclear and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551, USA
7Physics Department, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA

Received 17 April 2015; Accepted 15 June 2015

Academic Editor: Gianluca Cavoto

Copyright © 2015 S. J. Brodsky et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The publication of this article was funded by SCOAP3.

Linked References

  1. S. J. Brodsky, F. Fleuret, C. Hadjidakis, and J. P. Lansberg, “Physics opportunities of a fixed-target experiment using LHC beams,” Physics Reports, vol. 522, no. 4, pp. 239–255, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. P. Lansberg, S. J. Brodsky, F. Fleuret, and C. Hadjidakis, “Quarkonium physics at a fixed-target experiment using the LHC Beams,” Few-Body Systems, vol. 53, no. 1-2, pp. 11–25, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. Lansberg, R. Arnaldi, S. Brodsky et al., “AFTER@LHC: a precision machine to study the interface between particle and nuclear physics,” EPJ Web of Conferences, vol. 66, Article ID 11023, 4 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. A. Rakotozafindrabe, M. Anselmino, R. Arnaldi et al., “Studying the high x frontier with afixed-target experiment at the LHC,” in Proceedings of the 21st International Workshop on Deep-Inelastic Scattering and Related Subject (DIS '13), p. 250, Marseille, France, April 2013.
  5. S. J. Brodsky, P. Hoyer, C. Peterson, and N. Sakai, “The intrinsic charm of the proton,” Physics Letters B, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 451–455, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. J. Brodsky, J. C. Collins, S. D. Ellis, J. F. Gunion, and A. H. Mueller, “Intrinsic chevrolets at the SSC,” in Proceedings of the 1984 Summer Study on the SSC, Snowmass, Colo, USA, June-July 1984, Edited by R. Donaldson and J. G. Morfin (AIP, New York, NY, USA, 1985).
  7. B. Harris, J. Smith, and R. Vogt, “Reanalysis of the EMC charm production data with extrinsic and intrinsic charm at NLO,” Nuclear Physics B, vol. 461, pp. 181–196, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. M. Franz, M. V. Polyakov, and K. Goeke, “Heavy quark mass expansion and intrinsic charm in light hadrons,” Physical Review D, vol. 62, Article ID 074024, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. W. Freeman and D. Toussaint, “Intrinsic strangeness and charm of the nucleon using improved staggered fermions,” Physical Review D, vol. 88, no. 5, Article ID 054503, 18 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. A. Kryjevski, “Heavy quark q-q matrix elements in the nucleon from perturbative QCD,” Physical Review D, vol. 70, Article ID 094028, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. J. J. Aubert, G. Bassompierre, K. H. Becks et al., “Production of charmed particles in 250 GeV μ+-iron interactions,” Nuclear Physics B, vol. 213, no. 1, pp. 31–64, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. G. Bari, M. Basile, G. Bruni et al., “The Λb0 beauty baryon production in proton-proton interactions at s=62 GeV: a second observation,” Il Nuovo Cimento A, vol. 104, no. 12, pp. 1787–1800, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. R. Vogt, S. J. Brodsky, and P. Hoyer, “Systematics of charm production in hadronic collisions,” Nuclear Physics B, vol. 383, no. 3, pp. 643–684, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. R. Vogt and S. J. Brodsky, “Charmed hadron asymmetries in the intrinsic charm coalescence model,” Nuclear Physics B, vol. 478, no. 1-2, pp. 311–332, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. T. Gutierrez and R. Vogt, “Leading charm in hadron-nucleus interactions in the intrinsic charm model,” Nuclear Physics B, vol. 539, pp. 189–214, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. R. Vogt, S. J. Brodsky, and P. Hoyer, “Systematics of J/ψ production in nuclear collisions,” Nuclear Physics B, vol. 360, no. 1, pp. 67–96, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  17. P. Hoyer, M. Vanttinen, and U. Sukhatme, “Violation of factorization in charm hadroproduction,” Physics Letters B, vol. 246, pp. 217–220, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. R. Vogt and S. J. Brodsky, “Intrinsic charm contribution to double quarkonium hadroproduction,” Physics Letters B, vol. 349, no. 4, pp. 569–575, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. S. J. Brodsky, B. Kopeliovich, I. Schmidt, and J. Soffer, “Diffractive Higgs production from intrinsic heavy flavors in the proton,” Physical Review D, vol. 73, no. 11, Article ID 113005, 13 pages, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. S. J. Brodsky, A. S. Goldhaber, B. Z. Kopeliovich, and I. Schmidt, “Higgs hadroproduction at large Feynman x,” Nuclear Physics B, vol. 807, no. 1-2, pp. 334–347, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. S. J. Brodsky and S. Gardner, “Evading the CKM hierarchy: intrinsic charm in B decays,” Physical Review D, vol. 65, Article ID 054016, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. S. Brodsky, G. de Teramond, and M. Karliner, “Puzzles in hadronic physics and novel quantum chromodynamics phenomenology,” Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science, vol. 62, pp. 1–35, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. S. J. Brodsky, C. Peterson, and N. Sakai, “Intrinsic heavy-quark states,” Physical Review D, vol. 23, no. 11, p. 2745, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. S. J. Brodsky, P. Hoyer, A. H. Mueller, and W.-K. Tang, “New QCD production mechanisms for hard processes at large x,” Nuclear Physics B, vol. 369, no. 3, pp. 519–542, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. S. Paiva, M. Nielsen, F. S. Navarra, F. O. Duraes, and L. L. Barz, “Virtual meson cloud of the nucleon and intrinsic strangeness and charm,” Modern Physics Letters A, vol. 13, no. 34, pp. 2715–2724, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. M. Neubert, “Heavy-quark symmetry,” Physics Reports, vol. 245, no. 5-6, pp. 259–395, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. F. M. Steffens, W. Melnitchouk, and A. W. Thomas, “Charm in the nucleon,” The European Physical Journal C—Particles and Fields, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 673–683, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. J. Pumplin, “Light-cone models for intrinsic charm and bottom,” Physical Review D, vol. 73, Article ID 114015, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. T. Hobbs, J. Londergan, and W. Melnitchouk, “Phenomenology of nonperturbative charm in the nucleon,” Physical Review D, vol. 89, Article ID 074008, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. P. Chauvat, R. Cousins, K. Hayes et al., “Production of Λc with large XF at the isr,” Physics Letters B, vol. 199, no. 2, pp. 304–310, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. F. Garcia, G. Alkhazov, A. G. Atamantchouk et al., “Hadronic production of Λc from 600 GeV/, Σ and p beams,” Physics Letters B, vol. 528, no. 1-2, pp. 49–57, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. G. Altarelli and G. Parisi, “Asymptotic freedom in parton language,” Nuclear Physics B, vol. 126, pp. 298–318, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  33. V. N. Gribov and L. N. Lipatov, “Deep inelastic ep scattering in perturbation theory,” Soviet Journal of Nuclear Physics, vol. 15, p. 438, 1972. View at Google Scholar
  34. Y. L. Dokshitzer, “Calculation of the structure functions for deep inelastic scattering and e+e annihilation by perturbation theory in quantum chromodynamics,” Soviet Physics—JETP, vol. 46, pp. 641–653, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  35. J. C. Collins and W.-K. Tung, “Calculating heavy quark distributions,” Nuclear Physics B, vol. 278, no. 4, pp. 934–950, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. M. Buza, Y. Matiounine, J. Smith, and W. L. van Neerven, “Charm electroproduction viewed in the variable-flavour number scheme versus fixed-order perturbation theory,” The European Physical Journal C, vol. 1, no. 1-2, pp. 301–320, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. A. Belyaev, J. Pumplin, W.-K. Tung, and C. P. Yuan, “Uncertainties of the inclusive Higgs production cross section at the tevatron and the LHC,” Journal of High Energy Physics, vol. 2006, no. 1, article 069, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. F. Lyonnet, A. Kusina, T. Ježo et al., “On the intrinsic bottom content of the nucleon and its impact on heavy new physics at the LHC,” Journal of High Energy Physics, http://arxiv.org/abs/1504.05156.
  39. E. Hoffmann and R. Moore, “Sub-leading contributions to the intrinsic charm of the nucleon,” Zeitschrift für Physik C, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 71–82, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. J. Pumplin, H. L. Lai, and W. K. Tung, “Charm parton content of the nucleon,” Physical Review D, vol. 75, Article ID 054029, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. P. M. Nadolsky, H.-L. Lai, Q.-H. Cao et al., “Implications of CTEQ global analysis for collider observables,” Physical Review D, vol. 78, no. 1, Article ID 013004, 21 pages, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. S. Dulat, T.-J. Hou, J. Gao et al., “Intrinsic charm parton distribution functions from CTEQ-TEA global analysis,” Physical Review D, vol. 89, no. 7, Article ID 073004, 18 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. P. Jimenez-Delgado, T. J. Hobbs, J. T. Londergan, and W. Melnitchouk, “New limits on intrinsic charm in the nucleon from global analysis of parton distributions,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 114, Article ID 082002, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. P. Jimenez-Delgado and E. Reya, “Delineating parton distributions and the strong coupling,” Physical Review D, vol. 89, no. 7, Article ID 074049, 17 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. S. J. Brodsky and S. Gardner, “Comment on ‘New limits on intrinsic charm in the nucleon from global analysis of parton distributions’,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1504.00969.
  46. P. Jimenez-Delgado, T. J. Hobbs, J. T. Londergan, and W. Melnitchouk, “Reply to comment on ‘new limits on intrinsic charm in the nucleon from global analysis of parton distributions’,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1504.06304.
  47. D. Stump, J. Huston, J. Pumplin et al., “Inclusive jet production, parton distributions, and the search for new physics,” Journal of High Energy Physics, vol. 2003, no. 10, article 046, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. P. M. Nadolsky and Z. Sullivan, “PDF uncertainties in WH production at Tevatron,” http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0110378.
  49. B. A. Kniehl, G. Kramer, I. Schienbein, and H. Spiesberger, “Open charm hadroproduction and the charm content of the proton,” Physical Review D, vol. 79, no. 9, Article ID 094009, 10 pages, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. B. A. Kniehl, G. Kramer, I. Schienbein, and H. Spiesberger, “Inclusive D*± production in pp- collisions with massive charm quarks,” Physical Review D, vol. 71, Article ID 014018, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. B. A. Kniehl, G. Kramer, I. Schienbein, and H. Spiesberger, “Collinear subtractions in hadroproduction of heavy quarks,” The European Physical Journal C—Particles and Fields, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 199–212, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. B. A. Kniehl, G. Kramer, I. Schienbein, and H. Spiesberger, “Hadroproduction of D and B mesons in a massive VFNS,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS '05), Madison, Wis, USA, April 2005.
  53. T. Kneesch, B. Kniehl, G. Kramer, and I. Schienbein, “Charmed-meson fragmentation functions with finite-mass corrections,” Nuclear Physics B, vol. 799, no. 1-2, pp. 34–59, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. B. Kniehl, G. Kramer, I. Schienbein, and H. Spiesberger, “Inclusive charmed-meson production at the CERN LHC,” The European Physical Journal C, vol. 72, article 2082, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. B. Kniehl, G. Kramer, I. Schienbein, and H. Spiesberger, “Inclusive B-meson production at small pT in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme,” The European Physical Journal C, vol. 75, p. 140, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. T. P. Stavreva and J. F. Owens, “Direct photon production in association with a heavy quark at hadron colliders,” Physical Review D, vol. 79, Article ID 054017, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. T. Stavreva, I. Schienbein, F. Arleo et al., “Probing gluon and heavy-quark nuclear PDFs with γ + Q production in pA collisions,” Journal of High Energy Physics, vol. 2011, no. 1, article 152, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. T. Stavreva, F. Arleo, and I. Schienbein, “Prompt photon in association with a heavy-quark jet in Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC,” Journal of High Energy Physics, vol. 2013, no. 2, article 072, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. V. Bednyakov, M. Demichev, G. Lykasov, T. Stavreva, and M. Stockton, “Searching for intrinsic charm in the proton at the LHC,” EPJ Web of Conferences, vol. 60, Article ID 20047, 3 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  60. V. A. Bednyakov, M. A. Demichev, G. I. Lykasov, T. Stavreva, and M. Stockton, “Searching for intrinsic charm in the proton at the LHC,” Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics, vol. 728, no. 1, pp. 602–606, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus