Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in High Energy Physics
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 4025386, 14 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4025386
Research Article

Bose-Einstein Condensate Dark Matter Halos Confronted with Galactic Rotation Curves

Institute of Physics, University of Szeged, Dóm Tér 9, Szeged 6720, Hungary

Correspondence should be addressed to L. Á. Gergely; moc.liamg@ylegreg.a.olzsal

Received 7 October 2016; Revised 15 December 2016; Accepted 25 December 2016; Published 8 February 2017

Academic Editor: Sergei D. Odintsov

Copyright © 2017 M. Dwornik et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The publication of this article was funded by SCOAP3.

Linked References

  1. P. A. R. Ade, N. Aghanim, C. Armitage-Caplan et al., “Planck 2013 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 571, article 1, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  2. M. Francis, “First Planck results: the Universe is still weird and interesting,” Arstechnica, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  3. J. Ja locha, L. Bratek, M. Kutschera, and P. Skindzier, “Global disc models for galaxies NGC 1365, 6946, 7793 and UGC 6446,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 406, no. 4, pp. 2805–2816, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. M. Milgrom, “A modification of the Newtonian dynamics as a possible alternative to the hidden mass hypothesis,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 270, pp. 365–370, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. R. H. Sanders, “Anti-gravity and galaxy rotation curves,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 136, no. 2, pp. L21–L23, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  6. J. Moffat and I. Sokolov, “Galaxy dynamics predictions in the nonsymmetric gravitational theory,” Physics Letters B, vol. 378, no. 1–4, pp. 59–67, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. P. D. Mannheim, “Are galactic rotation curves really flat?” Astrophysical Journal, vol. 479, no. 2, pp. 659–664, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. D. Roberts, “Galactic metrics,” General Relativity and Gravitation, vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 2423–2431, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet
  9. C. G. Böhmer and T. Harko, “On Einstein clusters as galactic dark matter haloes,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 379, no. 1, pp. 393–398, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. C. G. Böhmer and T. Harko, “Can dark matter be a Bose-Einstein condensate?” Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, vol. 2007, no. 6, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. O. Bertolami, C. G. B{\"o}hmer, T. Harko, and F. S. Lobo, “Extra force in f(R) modified theories of gravity,” Physical Review D. Particles, Fields, Gravitation, and Cosmology, vol. 75, no. 10, Article ID 104016, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  12. C. G. Böhmer, T. Harko, and F. S. N. Lobo, “Dark matter as a geometric effect in f (R) gravity,” Astroparticle Physics, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 386–392, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. K. Mak and T. Harko, “Can the galactic rotation curves be explained in brane world models?” Physical Review D, vol. 70, no. 2, Article ID 024010, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. F. Rahaman, M. Kalam, A. DeBenedictis, A. A. Usmani, and R. Saibal, “Galactic rotation curves and brane world models,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 389, no. 1, pp. 27–33, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. L. Á. Gergely, T. Harko, M. Dwornik, G. Kupi, and Z. Keresztes, “Galactic rotation curves in brane world models,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 415, no. 4, pp. 3275–3290, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Stabile and S. Capozziello, “Galaxy rotation curves in f(R,ϕ) gravity,” Physical Review D, vol. 87, no. 6, Article ID 064002, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. E. Conover, “Physicists narrow in on electrical short in Large Hadron Collider,” Science, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. N. Arkani-Hamed et al., SUSY Bet: Arkani-Hamed and Panel Discussion, Current Themes in High Energy Physics and Cosmology, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2016.
  19. M. G. Aartsen, K. Abraham, M. Ackermann et al., “Searches for sterile neutrinos with the IceCube detector,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 117, no. 7, Article ID 071801, 9 pages, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. D. S. Akerib, H. M. Araujo, X. Bai et al., “First results from the LUX dark matter experiment at the sanford underground research facility,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 112, no. 9, Article ID 091303, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. PandaX-II Collaboration, “Dark matter results from First 98.7-day data of pandaX-II experiment,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 117, Article ID 121303, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. E. Aprile, J. Aalbers, F. Agostini et al., “XENON100 dark matter results from a combination of 477 live days,” Physical Review D, vol. 94, no. 12, Article ID 122001, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. D. Choudhury and K. Ghosh, “Bounds on universal extra dimension from LHC run I and II data,” Physics Letters B, vol. 763, pp. 155–160, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  24. C. Alcock, R. A. Allsman, D. R. Alves et al., “The MACHO project: microlensing results from 5.7 years of large magellanic cloud observations,” Astrophysical Journal, vol. 542, no. 1, pp. 281–307, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. B. P. Abbott, R. Abbott, T. D. Abbott et al., “Observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 116, no. 6, Article ID 061102, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. D. O. Caldwell, Current Aspects of Neutrino Physics, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. H. J. de Vega and N. G. Sanchez, “Warm dark matter in the galaxies: theoretical and observational progresses. Highlights and conclusions of the chalonge meudon workshop 2011,” https://arxiv.org/abs/1109.3187.
  28. H. Wei, Z.-C. Chen, and J. Liu, “Cosmological constraints on variable warm dark matter,” Physics Letters B, vol. 720, no. 4-5, pp. 271–276, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. P. L. Biermann and A. Kusenko, “Relic keV sterile neutrinos and reionization,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 96, no. 9, Article ID 091301, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. G. Aartsen, M. Ackermann, J. Adams et al., “Searches for sterile neutrinos with the icecube detector,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 117, no. 7, Article ID 071801, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. T. Padmanabhan, “Cosmological constant—the weight of the vacuum,” Physics Reports. A Review Section of Physics Letters, vol. 380, no. 5-6, pp. 235–320, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  32. P. J. Peebles and B. Ratra, “The cosmological constant and dark energy,” Reviews of Modern Physics, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 559–606, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  33. A. Fowlie, K. Kowalska, L. Roszkowski, E. M. Sessolo, and Y.-L. S. Tsai, “Dark matter and collider signatures of the MSSM,” Physical Review D, vol. 88, no. 5, Article ID 055012, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. G. Aad, T. Abajyan, B. Abbott et al., “Search for invisible decays of a higgs boson produced in association with a Z boson in ATLAS,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 112, no. 20, Article ID 201802, 19 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. P. H. Frampton, “Angular momentum of dark matter black holes,” https://arxiv.org/abs/1608.05009.
  36. M. Sasaki, T. Suyama, T. Tanaka, and S. Yokoyama, “Primordial black hole scenario for the gravitational-wave event GW150914,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 117, no. 6, Article ID 061101, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. P. Palunas and T. B. Williams, “Maximum disk mass models for spiral galaxies,” Astronomical Journal, vol. 120, no. 6, pp. 2884–2903, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. W. J. G. de Blok and A. Bosma, “High-resolution rotation curves of low surface brightness galaxies,” Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 385, no. 3, pp. 816–846, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. V. Springel, S. D. M. White, A. Jenkins et al., “Simulations of the formation, evolution and clustering of galaxies and quasars,” Nature, vol. 435, no. 7042, pp. 629–636, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. F. Navarro, C. S. Frenk, and S. D. M. White, “The structure of cold dark matter halos,” Astrophysical Journal, vol. 462, no. 2, pp. 563–575, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. O. Valenzuela, G. Rhee, A. Klypin et al., “Is there evidence for flat cores in the halos of dwarf galaxies? The case of NGC 3109 and NGC 6822,” Astrophysical Journal, vol. 657, no. 2 I, pp. 773–789, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. R. Jardel, K. Gebhardt, M. H. Fabricius, N. Drory, and M. J. Williams, “Measuring dark matter profiles non-parametrically in dwarf spheroidals: an application to Draco,” Astrophysical Journal, vol. 763, no. 2, article 91, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. Burkert, “The structure of dark matter halos. Observation versus theory,” in Dark Matter in Astro- and Particle Physics: (DARK '96): Heidelberg, Germany, 16–20 September 1996, H. V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus and Y. Ramachers, Eds., p. 35, World Scientific, Singapore, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  44. R. Teyssier, A. Pontzen, Y. Dubois, and J. I. Read, “Cusp-core transformations in dwarf galaxies: observational predictions,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 429, no. 4, pp. 3068–3078, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. Inoue and T. R. Saitoh, “Cores and revived cusps of dark matter haloes in disc galaxy formation through clump clusters,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 418, no. 4, pp. 2527–2531, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. Klypin and F. Prada, “Testing gravity with motion of satellites around galaxies: Newtonian gravity against modified Newtonian dynamics,” Astrophysical Journal, vol. 690, no. 2, pp. 1488–1496, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. L. Á. Gergely and S. Tsujikawa, “Effective field theory of modified gravity with two scalar fields: dark energy and dark matter,” Physical Review D, vol. 89, no. 6, Article ID 064059, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. I. Rodríguez-Montoya, J. Magaña, T. Matos, and A. Pérez-Lorenzana, “Ultra light bosonic dark matter and cosmic microwave background,” Astrophysical Journal, vol. 721, no. 2, pp. 1509–1514, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. S.-J. Sin, “Late-time phase transition and the galactic halo as a Bose liquid,” Physical Review D, vol. 50, no. 6, article 3650, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. P. Sikivie, “Caustic rings of dark matter,” Physics Letters B, vol. 432, no. 1-2, pp. 139–144, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. P. Sikivie, “Caustic ring singularity,” Physical Review D—Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 1–16, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. E. P. Gross, “Structure of a quantized vortex in boson systems,” Nuovo Cimento, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 454–477, 1961. View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  53. E. P. Gross, “Hydrodynamics of a superfluid condensate,” Journal of Mathematical Physics, vol. 4, no. 2, p. 195, 1963. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. L. P. Pitaevskii, “Vortex lines in an imperfect bose gas,” Zhurnal Éksperimental'noĭ i Teoreticheskoĭ Fiziki, vol. 40, no. 2, p. 646, 1961. View at Google Scholar
  55. T. Harko, “Cosmological dynamics of dark matter Bose-Einstein condensation,” Physical Review D, vol. 83, no. 12, Article ID 123515, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. C. C. De Souza and M. O. C. Pires, “Discussion on the energy content of the galactic dark matter Bose-Einstein condensate halo in the Thomas-Fermi approximation,” Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, vol. 2014, no. 3, article no. 010, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. T. Harko, “Gravitational collapse of Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter halos,” Physical Review D—Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, vol. 89, no. 8, Article ID 084040, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. H. Velten and E. Wamba, “Power spectrum for the Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter,” Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics, vol. 709, no. 1-2, pp. 1–5, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. J. W. Lee, S. Lim, and D. Choi, “BEC dark matter can explain collisions of galaxy clusters,” https://arxiv.org/abs/0805.3827.
  60. D. Boyanovsky, H. J. De Vega, and N. G. Sanchez, “Constraints on dark matter particles from theory, galaxy observations, and N-body simulations,” Physical Review D, vol. 77, no. 4, Article ID 043518, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. A. X. González-Morales, A. Diez-Tejedor, L. A. Ureña-López, and O. Valenzuela, “Hints on halo evolution in scalar field dark matter models with galaxy observations,” Physical Review D, vol. 87, no. 2, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  62. V. H. Robles and T. Matos, “Flat central density profile and constant dark matter surface density in galaxies from scalar field dark matter,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 422, no. 1, pp. 282–289, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M. Dwornik, Z. Keresztes, and L. Á. Gergely, “Rotation curves in bose-einstein condensate dark matter halos,” in Recent Development in Dark Matter Research, N. Kinjo and A. Nakajima, Eds., pp. 195–219, Nova Science, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  64. L. P. Pitaevskii and S. Stringari, Bose-Einstein Condensation, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2003.
  65. S. Grossmann and M. Holthaus, “On Bose-Einstein condensation in harmonic traps,” Physics Letters A, vol. 208, no. 3, pp. 188–192, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. W. Ketterle and N. J. van Druten, “Two-step condensation of the ideal bose gas in highly anisotropic traps,” Physical Review A, vol. 54, p. 656, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  67. K. Kirsten and D. J. Toms, “Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases in a general harmonic-oscillator confining potential trap,” Physical Review A—Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, vol. 54, no. 5, article 4188, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. H. Haugerud, T. Haugset, and F. Ravndal, “A more accurate analysis of Bose-Einstein condensation in harmonic traps,” Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics, vol. 225, no. 1-3, pp. 18–22, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. S. Giorgini, L. P. Pitaevskii, and S. Stringari, “Theory of ultracold atomic Fermi gases,” Reviews of Modern Physics, vol. 80, no. 4, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. K. Glaum, A. Pelster, H. Kleinert, and T. Pfau, “Critical temperature of weakly interacting dipolar condensates,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 98, no. 8, Article ID 080407, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. M. Schütte and A. Pelster, “Critical temperature of a bose-einstein condensate with 1/r interactions,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Path Integrals: New Trends and Perspectives (PI '07), W. Janke and A. Pelster, Eds., pp. 417–420, World Scientific, Dresden, Germany, September 2007. View at Scopus
  72. F. Dalfovo, S. Giorgini, L. P. Pitaevskii, and S. Stringari, “Theory of Bose-Einstein condensation in trapped gases,” Reviews of Modern Physics, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 463–512, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science, vol. 269, no. 5221, pp. 198–201, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. D. J. Han, R. H. Wynar, P. Courteille, and D. J. Heinzen, “Bose-Einstein condensation of large numbers of atoms in a magnetic time-averaged orbiting potential trap,” Physical Review A—Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. R4114–R4117, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. U. Ernst, A. Marte, F. Schreck, J. Schuster, and G. Rempe, “Bose-Einstein condensation in a pure Ioffe-Pritchard field configuration,” Europhysics Letters, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. K. B. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews et al., “Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 75, no. 22, article 3969, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. L. V. Hau, B. D. Busch, C. Liu, Z. Dutton, M. M. Burns, and J. A. Golovchenko, “Near-resonant spatial images of confined Bose-Einstein condensates in a 4-Dee magnetic bottle,” Physical Review A, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. R54–R57, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, J. J. Tollett, and R. G. Hulet, “Evidence of Bose-Einstein condensation in an atomic gas with attractive interactions,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 75, no. 9, pp. 1687–1690, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. E. Madelung, “Quantum theory in hydrodynamic form,” Zeitschrift für Physik, vol. 40, pp. 322–326, 1926. View at Google Scholar
  80. S. Sonego, “Interpretation of the hydrodynamical formalism of quantum mechanics,” Foundations of Physics. An International Journal Devoted to the Conceptual Bases and Fundamental Theories of Modern Physics, Biophysics, and Cosmology, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1135–1181, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  81. X. Z. Wang, “Cold Bose stars: self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates,” Physical Review D, vol. 64, no. 12, Article ID 124009, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. E. H. Lieb, R. Seiringer, and J. Yngvason, “A rigorous derivation of the Gross-Pitaevskii energy functional,” Physical Review A, vol. 61, no. 4, Article ID 043602, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. J. L. Sérsic, Atlas de Galaxias Australes, Observatorio Astronomico, Cordoba, Argentina, 1968.
  84. K. C. Freeman, “On the disks of spiral and so galaxies,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 160, p. 811, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. C. Impey and G. Bothun, “Low surface brightness galaxies,” Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 267–307, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. S. S. Mcgaugh, “Oxygen abundances in low surface brightness disk galaxies,” Astrophysical Journal, vol. 426, no. 1, pp. 135–149, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. K. O'Neil, G. D. Bothun, J. Schombert, M. E. Cornell, and C. D. Impey, “A wide field ccd survey for low surface brightness galaxies. II. Color distributions, stellar populations, and missing baryons,” Astronomical Journal, vol. 114, no. 6, p. 2448, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. M. Beijersbergen, W. J. G. De Blok, and J. M. Van Der Hulst, “Surface photometry of bulge dominated low surface brightness galaxies,” Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 351, no. 3, pp. 903–919, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. I. D. Karachentsev, V. E. Karachentseva, W. K. Huchtmeier, and D. I. Makarov, “A catalog of neighboring galaxies,” Astronomical Journal, vol. 127, no. 4, pp. 2031–2068, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. G. A. Tammann, “Dwarf galaxies in the past,” in Dwarf Galaxies, ESO Conference and Workshop Proc No. 49, p. 3, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  91. L. D. Matthews and J. S. Gallagher III, “B and V CCD photometry of southern, extreme late-type spiral galaxies,” Astronomical Journal, vol. 114, no. 5, pp. 1899–1919, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. M. Mateo, “Dwarf galaxies of the local group,” Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 435–506, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. S. Capozziello, V. F. Cardone, and A. Troisi, “Low surface brightness galaxy rotation curves in the low energy limit of Rn gravity: no need for dark matter?” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 375, no. 4, pp. 1423–1440, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. M. Persic, P. Salucci, and F. Stel, “The universal rotation curve of spiral galaxies—I. The dark matter connection,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 281, no. 1, pp. 27–47, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. M. O. C. Pires and J. C. C. De Souza, “Galactic cold dark matter as a Bose-Einstein condensate of WISPs,” Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, vol. 2012, no. 11, article 024, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. G. Helou, B. F. Madore, M. Schmitz, M. D. Bicay, X. Wu, and J. Bennett, “The NASA/IPAC extragalactic database,” in Databases & On-Line Data in Astronomy, vol. 171 of Astrophysics and Space Science Library, pp. 89–106, Springer Netherlands, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  97. S. S. Mcgaugh, J. M. Schombert, G. D. Bothun, and W. J. G. De Blok, “The baryonic tully-fisher relation,” Astrophysical Journal, vol. 533, no. 2, pp. L99–L102, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. S. S. McGaugh and J. Olf, “Local group dwarf spheroidals: correlated deviations from the Baryonic Tully-Fisher Relation,” Astrophysical Journal, vol. 722, no. 1, pp. 248–261, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. R. D. Peccei and H. R. Quinn, “CP conservation in the presence of pseudoparticles,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 38, no. 25, pp. 1440–1443, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. S. J. Asztalos, G. Caosi, C. Hagmann et al., “The Axion Dark Matter eXperiment,” in Proceedings of the 31st International Symposium on Physics in Collision, Vancouver, Canada, August 2011.
  101. L. J. Rosenberg, “Dark-matter QCD-axion searches,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 112, no. 40, pp. 12278–12281, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus